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《正法印》

 

Proper Dharma Seal

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
THE FLOWER ADORNMENT SUTRA WITH COMMENTARY

【卷三世主妙嚴品第一之三】

The Wondrous Adornments of World Rulers, Roll 3, Chapter 1, Part 3

■   宣化上人講  Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua
■  國際譯經學院記錄  Translated by the International Translation Institute

前期提示:復次。遍住一切主方神。
得普救護力解脫門。

得普救護力,這救護力是普遍的,沒有選擇 的,沒有分別的。不是說這個眾生給我上一點 供,燒一點香,供一點花,叩幾個頭,我就來 救護他。不是這樣的!是普遍的;不論你恭敬 供養和不恭敬供養,你若有了災難,他都會救 護你。若是有災難,這主方神會來救護;若沒 有災難他救不救護呢?沒有災難,他就會救護 你這個災難的未然。未然,就是沒有現前的; 他預先就令你這個災難不發生了。那麼已經發 生的,他救;未發生的,他也救。將要發生的 ,當發生的,他都救護,所以叫普遍救護力。

這個救護力量他得到了,但他若不救護呢? 他就沒有用了。他得到這救護力,就用這救護 力來救護一切眾生,令一切眾生災難消除,吉 祥現前,所以叫普救護力。不分善惡,他同樣 地救護;他不分別、不選擇,所以叫普救護力 解脫門。這種的解脫門他得到了,他也希望一 切眾生同得到這種解脫門,所以他才說出來這 種的境界。這是哪一位主方神呢?就是遍住一 切這一位主方神;他得到這種境界,他來宣說 佛的境界,有這麼一部分。

普現光明主方神。得成辦化一切眾生神通業 解脫門。

「普現光明主方神」:這一位主方神,他的 名字叫普現光明。他這光明不但一方,普現於 十方,所以叫普現光明。令十方一切眾生,見 著他這種光明,「得成辦」:就能成辦一切所 願意的,所以他得到成辦。成辦,是成就善業 ,成就淨業,成就神通業。成就眾生的善業, 成就眾生的淨業,成就眾生的神通業。成就眾 生的善業,令眾生發善心做十善的功德,修持 五戒。成就眾生的神通業,令一切眾生都遠離 愚癡,有一種神通智慧。成就眾生的淨業,令 一切眾生把染業空了,淨業成就了,所以說他 得成辦。

「化一切眾生神通業解脫門」:一切眾生都 受他教化,那麼得到神通業。神通業幫著修菩 提道果,能以「所作已辦,大事已畢,不受後 有。」所應該做的事情已經都辦了,所有的事 情也都完了,不受後有,不會再輪迴到這六道 輪迴裡頭還有一個來生。得到不生不滅,不垢 不淨,不增不減,圓滿的果覺,所以他得到這 種的境界,入這一種的解脫門。這解脫門也是 佛八萬四千法門之中的一個法門,你哪一個人 若想修這一種的法門,都可以成就的。

(英譯者按:清涼國師《華嚴疏鈔》云:「神通示 相是能成辦業。眾生出苦。是所成辦業。」經文上 「得成辦化一切眾生神通業解脫門」的「業」在這 一段,是主詞,也是受詞,所以很難譯得很流暢而 達意。)

光行莊嚴主方神。得破一切暗障生喜樂大光明 解脫門。

這一位主方神也是放大光明,光行莊嚴。他 用這個光行來莊嚴,莊嚴諸佛國土,所以他叫 「光行莊嚴主方神」。主方神多數願意放光, 因為他在那個地方願意有光明。這一位主方神 他唯一的長處是什麼呢?「得破一切暗障」: 破除一切暗障。是不是他破除的呢?佛的威神 力令他破除一切的暗障;這一切的暗障包括無 明、煩惱和貪瞋癡,這都是黑暗的暗障,他能 給破除。破除眾生的貪瞋癡,令生戒定慧。破 貪瞋癡,也就是破除煩惱;生戒定慧,也就是 「生喜樂」。你有了戒,有了定,有了慧,自 然就會喜樂,得到這種禪悅。你若沒有戒定慧 ,所生出的喜樂,也不是真喜樂。你由戒定慧 生出這個喜樂,這才是真喜樂。得到真喜樂, 就生大智慧。由戒生定,由定發慧,戒定慧修 成了,就得大光明,所以叫「大光明解脫門」 。你得到大光明了,有真正的智慧了,這就自 然得到解脫了。我們為什麼得不到解脫?就因 為我們沒有真正的智慧,現在這位主方神把佛 這一種的境界說出來。我們應該依法修行,也 得到破一切暗障生喜樂大光明解脫門。

(英譯者按:清涼國師《華嚴疏鈔》云:法光破暗 。暗斷智生。智與法喜俱生。斷以寂滅為樂。)

我們找毛病的時候又來了,我們大家提出來 意見。今天我所講的,有幾個不對的地方,提 出來共同研究;有幾個對的地方,也提出來共 同研究。我們不論講多少,必須要真正明白了 才算。若沒有明白,不妨把它再重複一下,再 來講一講。是每一個人都有發言權,都有權來 批評,來討論。一定要把這個經義發揮出來, 這才不枉我們在這兒坐這麼久的時間。你這「 高」僧怎麼樣?有什麼意見?提出來!

恆靜: 有一個字有兩個讀法,有時候讀ㄏㄥˋ ,有時候讀 ㄒ-ㄥˊ,這是小問題,可是如果在 翻譯的時候,會有兩個意思,不知這這個怎麼 樣子?如果兩個意思是講得通的,又如何分別 是哪一個?譬如方才說的「光行(ㄏㄥˋ),光行 (ㄒ-ㄥˊ)。」

上人: 來!你先講一講你的意思!應該怎麼講 ?應該讀行(ㄏㄥˋ)呢?應該讀行(ㄒ-ㄥˊ)?

恆靜: 我想這兩個大約是可以講得通的。我想 ,在中文這不會是這麼大的一個不同的地方, 可是在英文上會。有的時候中文有小小的分別 ,英文算大;有時候在英文是大的,在中文算 小的。

上人: 對的!你這個意見我絕對接受的。誰有 什麼意見?按照你的意思,應該怎麼樣講?應 該講光行(ㄏㄥˋ)呢?還是講光行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ)呢?

恆靜: 我想兩個都可以!

上人: 光行(ㄏㄥˋ)英文怎麼樣翻譯?光行(ㄒㄧ ㄥˊ)英文怎么樣翻譯?你既然拿英文來說這個 有分別,我們提出來,把英文的意思來講一講 看看。

恆靜: 在英文這個關係是和這個「行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ) 」為的「行(ㄏㄥˋ)」字,和這個「莊嚴」兩個 字,加這四個字在一起這一句「光行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ) 莊嚴」,「光行(ㄏㄥˋ)莊嚴」。如果是用一個 行(ㄏㄥˋ)字,光行(ㄏㄥˋ)莊嚴。在英文,那個 行(ㄏㄥˋ)是有光明的。可是你如果讀行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ) 字,在英文是「他行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ)什麼行(ㄏㄥˋ)? 他行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ)這個莊嚴行(ㄏㄥˋ)。」這個莊嚴 行(ㄏㄥˋ)是怎麼樣?是一個有光的!以光來莊 嚴。這也是一個小小不同,兩個翻譯法都差不 多。有的時候這不同的地方會大一點。如果兩 個都能講得通,在中文會有兩個意思,英文只 能翻一個意思的。

上人: 光行(ㄏㄥˋ)。怎麼樣翻譯?怎麼說?

恆靜: light conduct, brilliant conduct. 如果是相 通的,我就會說,他所行的就是光明的。如果 是讀行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ),在英文要翻 practice。如果是 讀行(ㄏㄥˋ),在英文要翻一個 conduct,一個是 noun,一個是verb,在英文是名詞和動詞的關 係。

上人: 哪一個是名詞?哪一個是動詞?

恆靜: 在英文,行(ㄒㄧㄥˊ )是動詞,行(ㄏㄥˋ) 是名詞。

→待續

A reminder of the Sutra text:
Furthermore, the Direction-Ruling Spirit named Pervasively Dwelling Everywhere obtained the liberation door of power of universal rescue and protection.

This power to rescue and protect on a universal scale is all-pervasive, not selective or discriminatory. There is no policy involved that says, "If a particular living being makes an offering to me, lights some incense for me, offers me some flowers, or bows to me a few times, then I will rescue and protect him." It doesn't work that way, but rather extends to all universally. Regardless of whether you worship and make offerings to him or not, if disasters occur, he will rescue and protect you from them. Well then, since this Direction-Ruling Spirit rescues and protects you when disasters occur, does he rescue and protect you when no disasters occur, or not? When no disasters occur, he is preventing disasters from occurring. Before disaster hits, he makes it so the disaster does not strike. He saves people from calamities which are already in progress and disasters which have not yet come. He saves beings whether the calamity has already struck or has not yet struck. He can rescue and protect from disasters on the verge of happening and right in the midst of happening. Hence this is called power of universal rescue and protection.

He obtained strength to save and protect, but, having the power to save and protect, if he were to fail to do so, it would be of no use. Therefore, having acquired the power to save and protect, he uses that power to rescue and protect all living beings, so their calamities are dispelled and auspiciousness appears. That's why this is called the power of universal rescue and protection. He affords identical rescue and safeguarding to both good and bad. He doesn't discrimi nate or exclude, and so he is said to obtain the liberation door of such power to save and guard universally. He himself obtained this liberation door, and he also hopes all living beings will also obtain the same door to liberation, which is why he talks about it. The Direction-Ruling Spirit who obtained this is the Direction-Ruling Spirit named Pervasively Dwelling Everywhere. He obtained the state and pro claims how this state is one aspect of the state of the Buddha.

The Direction-Ruling Spirit named Universally Manifesting Great Light obtained the liberation door of accomplishing transforming all living beings karma of spiritual penetrations.

The present Direction-Ruling Spirit is named Universally Manifesting Great Light. He radiates light not just in one direction, but everywhere throughout the ten directions—which is why he is called Universally Manifesting Great Light. When the living beings of the ten directions see his light, they "obtain accomplishing"—they can accomplish everything they want. Therefore, he "obtained accomplishing." "Accomplishing" is accomplishing wholesome karma, accomplishing pure karma, and accomplishing karma of spiritual penetrations—accomplishing living beings' wholesome karma, accomplishing living beings' karma of spiritual penetrations, and accomplishing living beings' pure karma. Living beings' wholesome karma is accomplished by causing living beings to bring forth wholesome attitudes, create merit and virtue from the ten wholesome deeds, and cultivate maintaining the Five Precepts. Living beings' karma of spiritual penetrations is accomplished by causing living beings to leave stupidity far behind and to have a kind of wisdom of spiritual penetrations. Living beings' pure karma is accomplished by causing living beings to "empty" defiled karma, which accomplishes pure karma. That is why it says that he obtained the liberation door of accomplishing transforming all living beings karma of spiritual penetrations.

All living beings receive his teaching and transforming, for he attains the karma of spiritual penetrations. The karma of spiritual penetrations aids cultivation of the Fruition of the Way, which is Bodhi, at which time one has already accomplished what needed to be done. One has already brought the great matter to an end, and one under goes no further becoming. That is, one has taken care of the things that had to be taken care of, so that all matters are concluded, and one undergoes no further existences. One will not have any more rebirths revolving on the wheel of the six paths. One achieves the perfect Fruition of Enlightenment which is neither produced nor destroyed, neither defiled nor pure, neither increased nor diminished. Thus he obtained that kind of state, and entered that type of door to liberation. This door to liberation is one Dharma-door among the Buddha's eighty-four thousand Dharma-doors, and any of you who wish to cultivate this kind of door to liberation can accomplish it.

(Translator’s Note: National Master Ching Liang’s commentary on this passage says, “The displaying of marks of spiritual penetrations is karma which accomplishes, and living beings leaving suffering is karma which is accomplished." Since "karma" in this passage is both subject and object, it is difficult to translate the passage into English in a way that is both fluent English and that allows for all possibilities of interpretation.)

The Direction-Ruling Spirit named Adornment with Luminous Practice obtained the liberation door of great light which demolishes all obstacles of darkness and brings forth bliss.

The next Direction-Ruling Spirit is named Adornment with Luminous Practice. He too emits great light. "Adornment with Luminous Practice" refers to how he uses radiant conduct as an adornment to ornament all Buddhas' lands. That is why he is called "the Direction-Ruling Spirit Adornment with Luminous Practice." For the most part, Direction-Ruling Spirits like to emit light. That's because they wish any place they are in to have light. Then what is this Direction-Ruling Spirit's outstanding trait? He obtained the liberation door of great light which demolishes all obstacles of darkness, dispelling all gloomy hindrances. Is it he who dispells them? The Buddha's awesome spiritual might enables him to break through and disperse every blockage of darkness. The gloomy obstacles include ignorance and afflictions—greed, anger and stupidity. Those are all gloomy obstacles of darkness, but he can dispel them. He demolishes living beings' greed, anger, and stupidity and makes them bring forth precepts, samadhi and wisdom. Breaking through greed, anger and stupidity is demolishing afflictions; and bringing forth precepts, samadhi, and wisdom brings forth bliss. If you have precepts, samadhi, and wisdom, then you will naturally be happy. You obtain the bliss of Dhyana. But if you lack precepts, samadhi, and wisdom, any happiness that arises will not be true bliss. If you do have precepts, samadhi, and wisdom, then the happiness which comes forth is true joy and bliss.

When you achieve genuine bliss, great wisdom comes forth. From precepts, samadhi arises, and from samadhi, wisdom is born. When you cultivate precepts, samadhi, and wisdom to completion, you obtain great light. Therefore this is called the liberation door of great light. When you attain great light and have true wisdom, then you will naturally achieve liberation. Why is it that we do not obtain liberation? It's because we lack true wisdom. But now as the present Direction-Ruling Spirit describes this state of the Buddha, we should cultivate according to the Dharma and also obtain the liberation door of great light which demolishes all obstacles of darkness and brings forth bliss.

(Translator's note: National Master Ching Liang's commentary on this passage says: "The light of Dharma demolishes darkness; and when darkness is severed, wisdom comes forth. Wisdom and the joy of Dharma come forth together. Severing takes still quiescence as bliss.")

The time has come to fault-find, and for everyone to offer opinions. How many mistakes were made during today's lecture, and how many places were lectured correctly? Bring them up, and we will look into them as a group. No matter how much or how little we lecture, we need to truly understand it for it to count. If there is something people haven't understood, we won't hesitate to re-lecture it. Now everyone has the right to speak, to criticize, and to discuss. We absolutely must bring out the meaning of the Sutra, so we will not have wasted our time sitting here so long. [To disciple Heng Ching] Tall Sanghan, what about you, what's your opinion? Speak up.

Heng Ching: One of the characters (行) has two pronunciations. Sometimes it's pronounced heng, and sometimes it's pronounced xing. This is a small matter, but when translating, it will change the meaning. If both interpretations are possible, then which one should we choose? For example, here it could be read as guang heng or as guang xing.

Venerable Master: First give your explanation. How should it be interpreted? Should it be pronounced heng or xing?

Heng Ching: I think probably both explanations make sense. The difference is not great in Chinese, but sometimes small differences in Chinese become large ones in English; and sometimes big differences in English become small ones in Chinese.

Venerable Master: That's right. I absolutely accept your opinion. Who has an opinion? How do you think it should be interpreted? Should it be guang heng or guang xing?

Heng Ching: I think either way would work.

Venerable Master: How should guang heng be translated in English? And what should be the English translation of guang xing? Since you claim there is a distinction in English, let's consider the meaning of the English.

Heng Ching: In the context of the four characters here, the final two characters being zhuang yan (APR嚴), if it is pronounced guang heng zhuang yan, in English the meaning is that the practice has light. But if the character is pronounced xing, then what conduct does he practice? He practices adorned conduct. What is adorned conduct? It has light. It uses light as adornment. The two ways of translating are not widely different, so here it doesn't matter much. But sometimes the discrepancy is larger. Even if both interpretations make sense in Chinese, the English language only allows for one.

Venerable Master: What is the translation of guang heng?

Heng Ching: "Light conduct," or "brilliant conduct." If it's xing, then I would say something like "he practices." If it's pronounced xing, the English translation would be "practice." If it's pronounced heng, the English translation would be "conduct." One is a noun and one is a verb.

Venerable Master: Which one is a noun, and which one is a verb?

Heng Ching: Xing is a verb, and heng is a noun in English.

→To be continued

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