light conduct, brilliant conduct. 如果是相
A reminder of the Sutra text:
Furthermore, the Direction-Ruling Spirit named Pervasively Dwelling Everywhere
obtained the liberation door of power of universal rescue and protection.
This power to rescue and protect on a universal scale is all-pervasive,
not selective or discriminatory. There is no policy involved that says,
"If a particular living being makes an offering to me, lights some
incense for me, offers me some flowers, or bows to me a few times,
then I will rescue and protect him." It doesn't work that way, but
rather extends to all universally. Regardless of whether you worship
and make offerings to him or not, if disasters occur, he will rescue
and protect you from them. Well then, since this Direction-Ruling
Spirit rescues and protects you when disasters occur, does he rescue
and protect you when no disasters occur, or not? When no disasters
occur, he is preventing disasters from occurring. Before disaster hits,
he makes it so the disaster does not strike. He saves people from
calamities which are already in progress and disasters which have
not yet come. He saves beings whether the calamity has already
struck or has not yet struck. He can rescue and protect from disasters
on the verge of happening and right in the midst of happening.
Hence this is called power of universal rescue and protection.
He obtained strength to save and protect, but, having the power to
save and protect, if he were to fail to do so, it would be of no use.
Therefore, having acquired the power to save and protect, he uses
that power to rescue and protect all living beings, so their calamities
are dispelled and auspiciousness appears. That's why this is called
the power of universal rescue and protection. He affords identical
rescue and safeguarding to both good and bad. He doesn't discrimi
nate or exclude, and so he is said to obtain the liberation door of such power to save and guard universally. He himself obtained this liberation door, and he also hopes all living beings will also obtain the same door to liberation, which is why he talks about it. The Direction-Ruling Spirit who obtained this is the Direction-Ruling Spirit named Pervasively Dwelling Everywhere. He obtained the state and pro claims how this state is one aspect of the state of the Buddha.
The Direction-Ruling Spirit named Universally Manifesting Great Light obtained the liberation door of accomplishing transforming all living beings karma of spiritual penetrations.
The present Direction-Ruling Spirit is named Universally Manifesting Great Light. He radiates light not just in one direction, but everywhere throughout the ten directions—which is why he is called Universally Manifesting Great Light. When the living beings of the ten directions see his light, they "obtain accomplishing"—they can accomplish everything they want. Therefore, he "obtained accomplishing." "Accomplishing" is accomplishing wholesome karma, accomplishing pure karma, and accomplishing karma of spiritual penetrations—accomplishing living beings' wholesome karma, accomplishing living beings' karma of spiritual penetrations, and accomplishing living beings' pure karma. Living beings' wholesome karma is accomplished by causing living beings to bring forth wholesome attitudes, create merit and virtue from the ten wholesome deeds, and cultivate maintaining the Five Precepts. Living beings' karma of spiritual penetrations is accomplished by causing living beings to leave stupidity far behind and to have a kind of wisdom of spiritual penetrations. Living beings' pure karma is accomplished by causing living beings to "empty" defiled karma, which accomplishes pure karma. That is why it says that he obtained the liberation door of accomplishing transforming all living beings karma of spiritual penetrations.
All living beings receive his teaching and transforming, for he attains the karma of spiritual penetrations. The karma of spiritual penetrations aids cultivation of the Fruition of the Way, which is Bodhi, at which time one has already accomplished what needed to be done. One has already brought the great matter to an end, and one under goes no further becoming. That is, one has taken care of the things that had to be taken care of, so that all matters are concluded, and one undergoes no further existences. One will not have any more rebirths revolving on the wheel of the six paths. One achieves the perfect Fruition of Enlightenment which is neither produced nor destroyed, neither defiled nor pure, neither increased nor diminished. Thus he obtained that kind of state, and entered that type of door to liberation. This door to liberation is one Dharma-door among the Buddha's eighty-four thousand Dharma-doors, and any of you who wish to cultivate this kind of door to liberation can accomplish it.
(Translator’s Note: National Master Ching Liang’s commentary on this passage says, “The displaying of marks of spiritual penetrations is karma which accomplishes, and living beings leaving suffering is karma which is accomplished." Since "karma" in this passage is both subject and object, it is difficult to translate the passage into English in a way that is both fluent English and that allows for all possibilities of interpretation.)
The Direction-Ruling Spirit named Adornment with Luminous Practice obtained the liberation door of great light which demolishes all obstacles of darkness and brings forth bliss.
The next Direction-Ruling Spirit is named Adornment with Luminous Practice. He too emits great light. "Adornment with Luminous Practice" refers to how he uses radiant conduct as an adornment to ornament all Buddhas' lands. That is why he is called "the Direction-Ruling Spirit Adornment with Luminous Practice." For the most part, Direction-Ruling Spirits like to emit light. That's because they wish any place they are in to have light. Then what is this Direction-Ruling Spirit's outstanding trait? He obtained the liberation door of great light which demolishes all obstacles of darkness, dispelling all gloomy hindrances. Is it he who dispells them? The Buddha's awesome spiritual might enables him to break through and disperse every blockage of darkness. The gloomy obstacles include ignorance and afflictions—greed, anger and stupidity. Those are all gloomy obstacles of darkness, but he can dispel them. He demolishes living beings' greed, anger, and stupidity and makes them bring forth precepts, samadhi and wisdom. Breaking through greed, anger and stupidity is demolishing afflictions; and bringing forth precepts, samadhi, and wisdom brings forth bliss. If you have precepts, samadhi, and wisdom, then you will naturally be happy. You obtain the bliss of Dhyana. But if you lack precepts, samadhi, and wisdom, any happiness that arises will not be true bliss. If you do have precepts, samadhi, and wisdom, then the happiness which comes forth is true joy and bliss.
When you achieve genuine bliss, great wisdom comes forth. From precepts, samadhi arises, and from samadhi, wisdom is born. When you cultivate precepts, samadhi, and wisdom to completion, you obtain great light. Therefore this is called the liberation door of great light. When you attain great light and have true wisdom, then you will naturally achieve liberation. Why is it that we do not obtain liberation? It's because we lack true wisdom. But now as the present Direction-Ruling Spirit describes this state of the Buddha, we should cultivate according to the Dharma and also obtain the liberation door of great light which demolishes all obstacles of darkness and brings forth bliss.
(Translator's note: National Master Ching Liang's commentary on this passage says: "The light of Dharma demolishes darkness; and when darkness is severed, wisdom comes forth. Wisdom and the joy of Dharma come forth together. Severing takes still quiescence as bliss.")
The time has come to fault-find, and for everyone to offer opinions. How many mistakes were made during today's lecture, and how many places were lectured correctly? Bring them up, and we will look into them as a group. No matter how much or how little we lecture, we need to truly understand it for it to count. If there is something people haven't understood, we won't hesitate to re-lecture it. Now everyone has the right to speak, to criticize, and to discuss. We absolutely must bring out the meaning of the Sutra, so we will not have wasted our time sitting here so long. [To disciple Heng Ching] Tall Sanghan, what about you, what's your opinion? Speak up.
Heng Ching: One of the characters (行) has two pronunciations. Sometimes it's pronounced heng, and sometimes it's pronounced xing. This is a small matter, but when translating, it will change the meaning. If both interpretations are possible, then which one should we choose? For example, here it could be read as guang heng or as guang xing.
Venerable Master: First give your explanation. How should it be interpreted? Should it be pronounced heng or xing?
Heng Ching: I think probably both explanations make sense. The difference is not great in Chinese, but sometimes small differences in Chinese become large ones in English; and sometimes big differences in English become small ones in Chinese.
Venerable Master: That's right. I absolutely accept your opinion. Who has an opinion? How do you think it should be interpreted? Should it be guang heng or guang xing?
Heng Ching: I think either way would work.
Venerable Master: How should guang heng be translated in English? And what should be the English translation of guang xing? Since you claim there is a distinction in English, let's consider the meaning of the English.
Heng Ching: In the context of the four characters here, the final two characters being zhuang yan (APR嚴), if it is pronounced guang heng zhuang yan, in English the meaning is that the practice has light. But if the character is pronounced xing, then what conduct does he practice? He practices adorned conduct. What is adorned conduct? It has light. It uses light as adornment. The two ways of translating are not widely different, so here it doesn't matter much. But sometimes the discrepancy is larger. Even if both interpretations make sense in Chinese, the English language only allows for one.
Venerable Master: What is the translation of guang heng?
Heng Ching: "Light conduct," or "brilliant conduct." If it's xing, then I would say something like "he practices." If it's pronounced xing, the English translation would be "practice." If it's pronounced heng, the English translation would be "conduct." One is a noun and one is a verb.
Venerable Master: Which one is a noun, and which one is a verb?
Heng Ching: Xing is a verb, and heng is a noun in English.
→To be continued