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《佛學概要》

 

INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM

六     欲     天
The Six Desire Heavens

宣化上人講述     Lecture by the Venerable Master Hsüan Hua
國際譯經學院編輯     Edited by the International Translation Institute

六欲天又叫欲界天。欲界天,色界天,無色界天,這叫三界。我們現在都在六欲天的四王天裡包括著。

第一天是「四王天」。我們直接所看見的這個天,叫四王天,有四大天王管著。它是在須彌山的半山腰上,天人的壽命是五百歲。此天一天是人間五十年。

第二天是「忉利天」。忉利天是梵語,翻譯為「三十三天」。什麼叫三十三天呢?因為帝釋天是在中間住著。帝釋是〈楞嚴咒〉「因陀囉耶」,就是天主教、耶穌教所說的天主;中國人叫玉皇大帝;在《書經》上叫上帝。另外東西南北各有八天,所以四八三十二天。

第三天是「燄摩天」。「燄摩」是梵語,翻譯為「時分」,這個天的天人,每一個時分都非常快樂,一天到晚都唱歌。唱什麼歌呢?他就說他特別歡喜,快哉!快哉!就是我快樂得很呀!

第四天「兜率天」。兜率翻譯為「喜足」,時時都歡喜,時時都滿足,一天到晚都無憂無愁的,沒有煩惱。又叫「知足天」,因為他們能知足常樂,且無憂愁無煩惱。

第五天「化樂天」。這天的天人,會變化他的快樂。思衣衣來,思食食至,變化自在,故非常快樂。

第六天「他化自在天」。他化,就是自己本來沒有快樂,但能把其他天的快樂,拿來做為自己的快樂。為什麼他要把其他天上的快樂拿到他自己來?就因為他不講道理;好像人間的土匪,搶人的財物做為自己的財物,不顧他人的死活。這裡有許多天魔及其眷屬。

以上六天的天人,因仍有飲食、淫欲、睡眠等三欲,所以叫欲界天。其男女嫁娶也如人間。天上雖快樂,但天福享盡後還會墮落,他們還是在輪迴中。

The Six Desire Heavens are also called the Heavens of the Desire Realm. The Desire Realm, Form Realm and Formless Realm are the Triple Realm. We are now encompassed in the Heaven of the Four Kings, one of the Six Desire Heavens.

The first heaven is the Heaven of the Four Kings. It is the heaven which we can see directly, ruled by four great heavenly kings. It is located halfway up Mount Sumeru. The lifespan of the gods there is five hundred years, with one day and night in that heaven equalling fifty years in the human realm.

The second heaven is the Trayastrimsha Heaven. Trayastrimsha is Sanskrit and translates as Heaven of the Thirty-three. What does this mean? Lord Shakra, who dwells in the center, is known as Indra in the Shurangama Mantra. He's known as God to the Catholics and Christians, as the Jade Emperor to the Chinese, and as the Lord on High in the Book of History. There are eight heavens to the east, west, south and north. Four times eight makes thirty-two heavens altogether.

The third heaven is the Suyama Heaven. Suyama is Sanskrit and means "time division." These gods are extremely happy all the time and sing songs from morning to night. What do they sing? "Merrily indeed! Merrily indeed! I'm tremendously happy!"

The fourth heaven is the Tushita Heaven. Tushita translates as joyful contentment. The beings there are delighted and satisfied at all times, free of worries and afflictions all day long. It's also called the "heaven of fulfillment" because the beings are satisfied and constantly happy, without cares or afflictions.

The fifth heaven is the Heaven of Delight by Transformation (Nirmanarati). These gods can transform happiness. The clothing and food they desire appear as soon as they think about them. Having mastered such transformations, they are extremely happy.

The sixth heaven is the Heaven of Self-mastery through the Transformation of Others' Pleasure. "Transformation of Others' Pleasure" means those beings don't have any joy of their own, so they usurp the happiness of other heavens. Why do they do this? Simply because they are unreasonable, like bandits in the world who rob others' money and possessions, not caring whether they live or die. Many demons and their retinues dwell in this heaven.

The gods in the Six Desire Heavens still have the three desires for food, lust and sleep, so they are still in the Desire Realm. Just as in this world, there are marriages between males and females. Although the heavens are blissful, after the gods' heavenly blessings are used up, they must still undergo transmigration.

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