萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea
萬佛城金剛菩提海 Vajra Bodhi Sea

金剛菩提海:首頁主目錄本期目錄

Vajra Bodhi Sea: HomeMain IndexIssue Index

《專文介紹》

 

Special Features

中國文化
Why Chinese Culture

何以將廣受世人所崇敬

Will Be Widely Admired and Respected by the World in the Future

□    陳立夫    文
By Lifu Chen

前期提示:
中國堯傳舜,舜傳夏禹,乃至商湯,施政方針,均秉「允執厥中」之訓示。

湯崩,太甲顛覆湯之典刑,伊尹效之于桐,三年,太甲悔過,自怨自艾,于桐處仁遷義三年,以聽伊尹之訓己也,復歸於亳。伊尹放太甲,其目的在訓太甲以政,及太甲知如何治理國政,遂還政于太甲,此種大公無私,勇于負責的精神,實啟訓政制度之榜樣。宜乎孟子尊之為「聖之任者」,謂必先有伊尹之志而後可,否則將被稱為篡也。

五百年後紂王荒淫無度,商遂亡于周,文王以方百里之地,以仁聲遠播,天下歸心。其所以致此者,蓋源于文王之德之純。純者、誠也,故孔子贊之曰:「文王之所以為文也,純亦不已。」文王視民如傷,其發政施仁,必先及于鰥寡孤獨四者,蓋哀此煢獨,政府之責也。其子武王,軍事長才,統一全國。其為政也,「不泄邇,不忘遠」(孟子),誠敬而信,尤能用賢,有十重臣為佐,使國大治,十人中有女士一人,足徵婦女從政,在我國三千年前已有之矣。孔子稱武王為「達孝」,謂其能為其父王繼志述事;能重視序昭穆,序爵,序事,序齒;能踐其位,行其禮,奏其樂,敬其所尊,愛其所親,事死如事生,事亡如事存,故曰:「孝之至也」。孝為仁之本,禮樂為德之行,其為有道之君,又為文武全才,宜其「治國其如視之掌乎!」

武王崩,其子成王尚幼,周公為武王之弟,以王叔攝政。憑其文武全才,平亂拓疆,國勢大振,制禮作樂,為國家奠久遠之德基。孔子認為惟大德而又有其位者,乃敢作此。周公復採文武合一之教育制度,使各級政府之首長,必須具備能文能武之資格,始克勝任,故能內修仁政,外抗侵略。周之能歷三十世,經七百年而始衰,豈偶然哉!考諸世界歷史,無可與之相比者,無他,仁政之為全民所愛戴耳!

天佑中國,有堯、舜、禹三大聖君,連續降生,連續禪讓,為國家奠定了公、誠、仁、中、行之德基,隨後雖稍有變化,五百年後,湯與伊尹,竟復為之復興,再五百年,歷史幾乎重演,文、武、周公三大偉人又連續降生,連續當政,公、誠、仁、中、行之道,復能以身立教,行健不息。五百年後,孔子降生,雖不得其位,而能使此道愈加弘揚,乃被人尊稱為萬世師表。

孔子生於周末,其時中央政府名存實亡,諸侯割據稱雄。孔子雖存復興周室之宏願,無奈終未得時君之長久重用。因其理想過高,不願隨俗沈浮,周遊列國,凡十四年,艱險備嚐,有志未伸,乃廣收生徒,從之者三千,精通六藝者七十有二。

→待續

Reminder from the last issue:
In China, as the rule was passed from Emperor Yao to Shun, then to Yu of the Xia Dynasty, and then to Tang of the Shang Dynasty, the government was consistently based upon the principle of maintaining equilibrium.

After Tang died, Tai Jia overturned Tang's entire legal system, so Yi Yin banished him to Tong for three years. After that Tai Jia was regretful and blamed himself. In Tong he studied humaneness and righteousness for three years following Yi Yin’s instruction. Later he returned to the Buo again. The reason that Yi Yin banished Tai Jia was to teach him how to govern. When Tai Jia fully understood how to govern the country, Yi Yin returned the power to Tai Jia. This kind of public spirit and courage in taking responsibility is truly a model of political tutelage. This is truly an example of what Mencius respectfully called a "sage-governor." A sage-governor must certainly have a resolve like Yi Yin; otherwise he will be called a usurper.

After five hundred years, King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty was licentious, so the country was in turmoil. The Shang Dynasty ended and the Zhou Dynasty started. King Wen, whose kingdom was only one hundred square miles, was known far and wide for his humaneness. The Chinese people devoted their hearts to him. This was possible because King Wen's virtue was impeccable. To be impeccable is to be sincere. A verse by Confucius praises, "The reason King Wen was a man of the literati was because he was sincere." King Wen, considering the populace to be like his own children in making policies to practice humaneness, would first benefit widowers, widows, orphans, and the solitary elderly. He considered it the government's responsibility to care for these people. His son, King Wu, was a military expert and united the empire. In his governing he maintained the attitude, "Don't underestimate those who are close and don't forget those who are far." (Mencius) He was sincere, respectful and trustworthy. He was especially good in employing the worthy ones and had ten top officials helping him and that enabled him to successfully govern the entire empire. Among the ten was one woman. This is ample proof that women were in government in China as far back as three thousand years. Confucius called Emperor Wu a "great filial one," because he continued his father's will and carried on his work. He placed importance on "distinguishing the royal kindred, ordering the noble and the lesser, arranging the services and making distinctions of seniority." He occupied the places of his forefathers, practiced their ceremonies, and performed their music. He revered those whom they honored, and loved those whom they regarded with affection. Thus he served the dead as he would have served them alive; he served the departed as he would have served them had they continued to be with him. Thus it is said that he was filial to the utmost. Filiality is the root of humaneness. Rites and music are the practice of virtue. He was a ruler endowed with the Way. He was both a man of the literati and a military strategist. It is fitting that it’s said of him, "He held the governing of the country in the palm of his hand."

When King Wu died, his son King Cheng was still young. The Duke of Zhou, King Wu's younger brother, took on the responsibility. Based on his own literary and military talents, he quelled the turmoil, expanded the territory and strengthened the country. He established rites and music and made the virtuous foundation upon which the country long endured. Confucius considered that not only must a person have great virtue, he must also be in the right position, before he can assume such a responsibility. The Duke of Zhou also used the system of education whereby people were trained in both the literary and military arts. He insisted that the heads of every rank in the government be skilled in both literary and military arts in order to be qualified. That way, government could remain humane internally while countering invasions from outside. It was no accident that the Zhou Dynasty lasted seven hundred years. Throughout history there has never been any government that can surpass a humane government, because it is loved by the people.

Heaven protected China through the three great sage-emperors, Yao, Shun, and Yu, who were born in a time sequence that enabled them to yield the throne to one another and to establish the fundamental ethics of public-spirit, sincerity, humaneness, equilibrium, and practice for the country. Even though things altered in the interim, after 500 years, Tang and Yi Yin appeared and revitalized the fundamental ethics. After another 500 years, history repeated itself when King Wen, King Wu, and the Duke of Jou were born and governed in sequence. Public-spirit, sincerity, humaneness, equilibrium, and practice once again were embodied, taught and applied without cease. After another 500 years, Confucius was born. Even though he did not occupy any position in the government, he was able to propagate this system and became venerated and renowned as a teacher of ten thousand generations.

Confucius was born at the end of the Zhou Dynasty. At that time the central government was nothing but an empty shell. The feudal lords divided the land and made themselves kings. Although Confucius cherished the hope of revitalizing the Zhou Dynasty, he never succeeded in finding a king who would make full use of him on a permanent basis. Because his ideals were too high, he was unwilling to go along with the crowd, and so he traveled through many states for fourteen years, experiencing all kinds of difficulties and dangers. He had the will but lacked the opportunity and so he gathered many students and disciples, numbering three thousand. Among them were seventy-two who mastered the six arts.

→To be continued

▲Top

法界佛教總會 Dharma Realm Buddhist Association© Vajra Bodhi Sea