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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大方廣佛華嚴經淺釋
The Flower Adornment Sutra With Commentary

【卷三世主妙嚴品第一之三】

The Wondrous Adornments of World-Rulers, Roll 3, Chapter 1, Part 3

宣化上人講    Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua
國際譯經學院記錄    Translated by the International Translation Institute


修道,一時一刻都要抱住自己的念頭,不能打妄想,不能生出欲念。
In cultivation of the Way, at all times you need to keep your thoughts under control,
and not have false thinking or let thoughts of desire arise.

經文提示:
    佛昔修治歡喜海    廣大無邊不可測
    是故見者咸欣樂    此是寂音之所了

佛昔修治歡喜海,「廣大無邊不可測」:這一種歡喜海,最廣大了,又沒有邊際,不可測量,不可說是多大。「是故見者咸欣樂」:所以見到佛的眾生,全都生出一種歡喜和快樂。「此是寂音之所了」:這一種境界,這一種解脫門,是寂音海主夜神所明了的。這首偈頌,是善財童子十地善友中的第五地難勝地。因為證到這第五地菩薩的果位,其他的四地就沒有這樣殊勝,所以叫難勝地。

如來境界不可量    寂而能演遍十方 普使眾生意清淨    尸利夜神聞踊悅

如來無所從來,亦無所去,故名如來。如來者,好像來了,可是沒有來。那麼是不是去了呢?也沒有去。不來不去,所以說是如來。如來是佛的十號之一。既然是佛的十號之一,所以也就是佛。如來就是佛,佛就是如來。

一般不明白佛法的人,說如來佛,其實這就是佛、佛。佛佛道同,佛佛都是一樣的。佛與佛是一個的,也就是光與光是一個的。你看那光都是一樣的,都是明,沒有不明的光。可是也有黑的光、紅的光、黃的光、白的光、紫的光。光雖然有這麼多種,但是光光相合,這就是佛和佛不分彼此的,所以才說「十方三世佛,同共一法身」,都是一個法身,也就是一個光。

既然佛是一個光,我們人為什麼不一個光呢?我們人,光是不一個,可是人人這氣都是一 個,什麼氣呢?就是這個脾氣,你有脾氣,我有脾氣,他也有脾氣。若把這個脾氣變成光就好囉!這叫化干戈為玉帛。你能把脾氣化沒有了,就是光,就是智慧。

既然佛是一個光,我們人為什麼不一個光呢?我們人,光是不一個,可是人人這氣都是一 個,什麼氣呢?就是這個脾氣,你有脾氣,我有脾氣,他也有脾氣。若把這個脾氣變成光就好囉!這叫化干戈為玉帛。你能把脾氣化沒有了,就是光,就是智慧。

人為什麼愚癡?就因為有脾氣。脾氣,就是無明煩惱集聚而成的。真是可憐啊!一有了脾氣,這就生出瞋恨來;瞋恨一生出來,殺心也就生出來了。殺、盜、淫、妄、酒,都是從這個無明、煩惱、脾氣而變成的。所以我說我們人有一樣,就是這個脾氣一樣。

尤其我這個出家人,更貪心得不得了,貪什麼呢?貪人的脾氣。我願意所有人的脾氣都布施給我,可是你們這一些人,都是捨不得,抱著這個脾氣比珍珠、鑽石還寶貴。但是捨不得也要捨,不捨不行。你不捨,就成佛無份;捨了,就成佛有份。一切眾生皆有佛性,可是,一切眾生也皆有魔性!這個魔性是什麼?就是脾氣!你若不相信,你想一想,看看你有脾氣,就會做魔。你若沒有脾氣,就返本還原,現出大光明藏,般若智慧現前。

我一講就忘了時間,忘了題目了。現在跑得還沒有太遠,再回來,回來到什麼上?哦!到佛的境界上。「如來境界不可量」:說你明白佛的境界嗎?我明白一點,不是太多。為什麼說明白一點呢?因為佛的境界是不可量的,無量,沒有數量;無邊,沒有邊際,還不可說不可說。那麼因有一個不可說,所以我就懂得這個不可說,這不可說的境界就是我所知道的。你問什麼樣子?不可說嘛!怎麼還要說?我也不可說,你也不要問。你也不要問這也是佛的境界;我也不可說,這也是佛的境界。

你知道這一點點,就差不多了,不要知道太多,知道太多那太麻煩了。你就知道這一點點,要怎麼樣呢?破無明、顯法性,把無明破了,法性就現出來,這是佛的境界,一點點。那麼這一點點也沒有,因為沒有,所以就不可量;有,那你拿出來給我看看!一切的一切都是佛的境界。你明白了,一切都是佛的境界;你若不明白,那麼也是佛的境界,不過你不知道,沒了解而已。這是佛的境界不可量,沒有一個數量。

「寂而能演遍十方」:佛的境界是寂然不動的,雖然寂而不動,可是能感而遂通。寂滅而沒有寂滅相;感而遂通也沒有一個動相,所以這叫寂而能演遍十方,不動道場周遍法界。周遍法界,可是不動道場,為什麼?就是寂而能演,就在這個寂靜中,為十方法界一切眾生,而演說妙法。

雖然演說妙法,不是像我們人這樣子,到這個地方,那個地方就沒有了;到那個地方,這個地方也沒有了,為什麼?不能分身,沒有百千億化身,所以就不能「寂而能演」,要動而能演了。動,或者坐飛機到紐約;或者坐輪船到了倫敦,這也叫動了。那麼寂而能演呢?不需要買飛機票,不需要買輪船票,就周遍法界。說這是太神妙了,現在科學時代,你還講這種空話,這不實際,你找什麼是一個實際?你若說這個空洞不實際,你找一個實際,相信也找不出來。

我們人自性有這種的妙用,你不能明白,也就好像衣服裡有一顆如意寶珠,你不知道用,所以有等於無;你若會用了,那就千變萬化,隨心如意,可是你要會用。不會用,就如意也不如意了;你若會用,不如意也如意了!

寂而能演,遍至十方法界,為什麼呢?下一句就說明白了。「普使眾生意清淨」:我們為什麼有脾氣?因為意沒有清淨。我們為什麼有煩惱?就因為意沒清淨。我們為什麼有無明?因為意沒有清淨。你若意清淨了,無明破了,煩惱也斷了。

煩惱不能斷,煩惱可以變,變什麼呢?變煩惱為菩提,破無明為智慧。你若說煩惱要斷了,你煩惱斷了,怎麼變菩提?所以不要斷,還是留一點點,叫它變菩提。煩惱就是不明白,才生煩惱;菩提就是明白,才生菩提。所以我方才講錯,講了要斷煩惱,煩惱怎麼可以斷呢?煩惱斷,你無明破了怎麼變菩提呢?

也就好像冰就是煩惱,水就是菩提。不是說要把冰燒乾了,燒到化成沒有水了,那算把煩惱斷了?應該把它化了,化冰為水,水即是冰,冰即是水;煩惱即菩提,菩提即煩惱,你明白了就是菩提,糊塗時候就是煩惱。煩惱和菩提沒有兩個的,所以你不要頭上安頭,在煩惱外邊去找菩提。

那麼遍十方,現在煩惱遍十方,菩提也遍十方,佛的光明智慧也照耀十方,這都是有一種連帶的關係。為什麼說煩惱無明這些脾氣都遍十方了呢?這很簡單,你說十方是不是有眾生?答:「有。」有眾生就有脾氣,就有煩惱,就有無明。那麼怎麼又不是遍十方?菩提也是這樣子,也是遍十方,有眾生就有菩提,有菩提性就有佛性。

「若人欲識佛境界,當淨其意如虛空。」這是《華嚴經》上的偈語,你想要明白佛的境界,就要把你的意清淨了,好像虛空那麼清淨。說現在虛空也被smoking(煙),被煙給染污了。雖然暫時污染,慢慢還會清淨,不要著急。這空氣染污,過了一個時候又會清淨了,這沒有關係。

「尸利夜神聞踴悅」:尸利,就是吉祥。這是普現吉祥的主夜神,她一聽見這種境界,這種妙不可思的道理,就歡喜得跳起來。你看這個夜神聞法起舞,不但夜神起舞,你看那迦葉祖師,他是位老修行,修頭陀行,他一聽有音樂,唱得好聽了,他也起來,跳起舞來了。所以妙法令人歡喜得忘人無我,忘形了,自己都不知道自己在什麼地方,這才得到法喜充滿。

→待續

A reminder of the sutra text:
    In the past the Buddha cultivated and regulated
         a sea of happiness
    Which was vast, great, boundless and infathomable.
    Therefore those who see him are all happy.
    That is what Still Sound understands.

The Buddha in the past cultivated and regulated a sea of happiness which was vast, great, boundless and infathomable. That kind of sea of happiness was so enormous that it had no borders, and could not be sounded to its depths. There's no way to say how big it was. Therefore those who see him are all happy. The result is that all living beings who see the Buddha become joyful and happy. That is what Still Sound understands. The Night-Ruling Spirit named Still Sea Sound understands this state and door to liberation. This stanza represents the Youth Good Wealth's Good Friend on the Fifth Ground, the Ground of Difficult Conquest. The four Grounds prior to it are not as outstanding, which is why the Fifth Ground is said to be hard to surpass.

The Tathagata's state cannot be measured.
Though silent, he can speak throughout the ten directions.
Universally causing beings' minds to be purified,
The Night Spirit Shri heard this and rejoiced.

The Tathagata, the "Thus Come One," does not come from anywhere, nor does he go anywhere, and so he is called the One Come Thus. The Thus Come One seems to come, yet doesn't come. Then does he go somewhere? No. Since he neither comes nor goes, he is said to be Thus Come. "Thus Come One" is one of the ten titles of the Buddha. That being the case, it means the Buddha. The Tathagata is the Buddha, and the Buddha is the Tathagata.

People who don't understand the Buddhadharma say, "Tathagata Buddha," but that's just saying, "Buddha Buddha." The Way of all Buddhas is the same. All Buddhas are alike. All Buddhas are one, like the identity of lights. All lights are the same in that they are bright. There are no lights which lack brightness. However, there are black lights, and red, yellow, white and purple ones. Even though there are so many kinds of light, all lights merge into one. In the same way, there are no distinctions between Buddhas. That's why it's said that the Buddhas of the ten directions and the three periods of time have one and the same Dharma Body. Their Dharma Body is one, which is one light. Since the Buddhas are a single light, why don't we people want to be a single light? Even though people aren't one light, people's tempers are one and the same. You, I, and others all have tempers. But if we can turn those tempers into light, everything will be fine. That's known as smelting down spears and making them into ploughshares. If you can get rid of your temper, that is light, and it's wisdom.

Why are you stupid? It's because you have a temper. Temper results from accumulated ignorance and afflictions. It's truly pitiable. As soon as you have a temper, anger arises. And when anger arises, so does the wish to kill. Killing, stealing, lustful misconduct, lying, and the taking of intoxicants are the outcomes of ignorance, afflictions and temper. That's why I said that what's identical about people is their temper.

In particular, I am a left-home person with tremendous greed. What am I greedy for? I'm greedy for people's tempers. I want everyone to give their tempers to me. However, you people can't part with your tempers. You hang onto them as if they were more precious than pearls or diamonds. You can't give your tempers away. Even so, you have to part with them. It will never do not to renounce them. Unless you give them up, you can't become a Buddha. But you can become a Buddha if you part with them. All living beings have the Buddha-nature, yet all living beings have the nature of a demon too. The demonic nature is their temper. If you don't believe it, think it over. If you have a temper you can become a demon. But without a temper, you go back to the origin and return to the source, and manifest a great treasury of light. Your Prajna wisdom appears.

As I talk, I forget the time and the topic, but I haven't strayed too far. Now I can come back. Where do I return to? To the Buddha's state. You may ask, "Do you understand the Buddha's state?" I understand it a little bit, not a lot. Why do I say I just understand a little? It's because the Buddha's state cannot be measured. It is infinite, beyond numerical measure. And it is boundless. It has no boundaries. It's also ineffably ineffable. Since it has that ineffableness, I understand it is indescribable. The state of its being indescribable is what I understand. You ask me, "What is it like?" Well, it's indescribable, so why do you want me to describe it? I can't describe it, and you shouldn't ask about it either. Just what you shouldn't ask about either is the Buddha's state. And what I cannot describe is the Buddha's state as well.

If you know that little bit, then you've just about got it. you shouldn't know too much. It's too much trouble to know too much. If you just know that little bit, then what? You break through ignorance, and the Dharma Nature manifests. When you smash through ignorance, then the Dharma Nature will appear. That's a little bit about the Buddha's state, but even that little bit does not exist. And since it does not exist, it cannot be measured. Do you say it exists? Then pick it up and show it to me. Everything whatsoever is the Buddha's state. If you understand, then everything is the Buddha's state. If you don't understand, it's still the Buddha's state--only you don't know and haven't understood yet. That's how the Buddha's state cannot be measured and has no numerical limits.

Though still, he can speak throughout the ten directions. The Buddha's state is still, silent and unmoving. Even so, his responses accordingly penetrate. He is still, silent and unmoving, and yet responses go through by way of response. He is still and quiescent without the mark of being still and quiescent. He accords in response without any characteristic of moving. That's what's described when it says, "Though still, he can speak throughout the ten directions." Without moving from the Way Place, he extends throughout the Dharma Realm. He extends throughout the ten directions, and yet he does not move from the Way Place. Why is that? It's because through still, he can speak. Right within the state of silence and stillness he can speak wonderful Dharma for all the living beings of the Dharma Realms of the ten directions.

Even though he proclaims wonderful Dharma, it's not like us people. When we are in this place, then we are not in that place. And when we are in that other place, we are no longer in this place. Why is that? It's because we are not able to divide our bodies. We don't have hundreds of thousands of kotis of myriads of transformation bodies, so we can't be still and yet speak. We have to move to speak. We might move by taking an airplane to New York, or a boat to London. Those are examples of moving. But if you can be still and yet speak, you don't need to purchase an airplane ticket or buy a ticket for a boat. You will pervade the Dharma Realm. You may say, "That's too mysterious. We're in the Scientific Age, and you're still spouting such vacuous talk. None of that is factual." Well, if you claim this is obscure and not factual, then look for something which is factual. I don't believe you will find any such thing.

Your own nature has that kind of wonderful functioning; it's just that you don't understand it. This is comparable to having a precious wish-fulfilling pearl right within your clothing. Because you don't know how to use it, it's as if you didn't have it. But if you can use it, you conjure up all kinds of transformations at will. The essential thing is that you know how to employ the pearl. If you can't use it, although it could fulfill your wishes, it doesn't. If you do know how to use it, then what originally went against your wishes will end up fulfilling your wishes.

So, even though he is still, he can speak throughout the ten directions. He reaches everywhere in the ten directions' Dharma Realms--doing what? The next line explains that he is universally causing beings' minds to be purified. Why is it that we have tempers, afflictions and ignorance? It is because our minds are not yet purified. If your mind is pure, your afflictions would be cut off, and your ignorance would be demolished. And yet, afflictions cannot be cut off; they can only be transformed. Into what? Turn afflictions into Bodhi, and smash ignorance into wisdom. If you insist on cutting off afflictions, once severed, how can they become Bodhi? Therefore, you shouldn't cut them off, but instead retain a tiny amount of them to change into Bodhi. People produce afflictions because they don't understand, whereas Bodhi arises from understanding. That's why I was wrong just now when I said to cut off afflictions. If afflictions are severed and ignorance demolished, how can you turn them into Bodhi?

Here's an analogy. Ice is equivalent to afflictions, and Bodhi equals water. The meaning of cutting off afflictions, is not that the ice is supposed to be heated to the drying point, so it evaporates and leaves no water. Rather, you should melt the ice so it changes into water. Ice is water, and water is ice. Afflictions are Bodhi, and Bodhi is afflictions. If you understand, then it's Bodhi; but when you are muddled, it's afflictions. Afflictions and Bodhi are not two different things. That being the case, you should not add a head on top of the head you already have by looking for Bodhi apart from afflictions.

Now, there is pervasion of the ten directions. Afflictions extend throughout the ten directions, and so does Bodhi. The light of the Buddha's wisdom also shines everywhere in the ten directions. These are all linked. You may ask, "Why do you say afflictions, ignorance and temper all pervade the ten directions?" It's very simple. You tell me: are there or are there not living beings in the ten directions? "There are," you reply. Well, if there are living beings, then there must be tempers, afflictions and ignorance, right? So how could they not pervade the ten directions? Bodhi is like that too; it also extends throughout the ten directions. Where there are living beings, there is Bodhi--the nature of Bodhi, the Buddha-nature.

"If someone wishes to understand the Buddha's state, he should purify his mind so it is like empty space." Those are lines of verse from the Flower Adornment Sutra. If you want to understand what the Buddha's state is like, you have to make your mind pure, just as pure as empty space. "But," you may protest, "These days the atmosphere is polluted with smog." Although it's temporarily polluted, it will slowly become pure. Don't get nervous. Air pollution can clear up with time. It doesn't matter.

The Night Spirit Shri heard this and rejoiced. "Shri" means "auspiciousness." As soon as the Night-Ruling Spirit named Universally Manifesting Auspiciousness heard about this kind of state, this wonderful and inconceivable principle, she was so delighted she jumped for joy. See how the Night-Ruling Spirit, upon hearing the Dharma, started dancing! That Night-Ruling Spirit was not alone. You may recall how the Patriarch Maha-Kashyapa, long-term cultivator and ascetic that he was, also got up and danced when he heard music chanted well. That indicates how the wonderful Dharma makes people so happy they forget themselves and others. They forget themselves and don't know where they are. That's being filled with the bliss of Dharma.

→To be continued

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