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《正法印》

 

PROPER DHARMA SEAL

大佛頂首楞嚴經淺釋 卷八
THE SHURANGAMA SUTRA
WITH COMMENTARY ROLL EIGHT

宣化上人講 Commentary by the Venerable Master Hua
國際譯經學院記錄 Translated by the International Translation Institute

「阿難,如是世界」:像這世界,「十二類生 」:所有前面講的十二類的眾生。「不能自全」 ,他自己不能生長自己,要怎麼樣呢?「依四食住」,要依靠四食住,什麼叫四食呢?「所調段食」,怎麼叫段食呢?段食就是分段食,一分一分的,一段一段的,這叫分段食。這是六欲天和阿修羅、人、畜生,這都是分段食。「觸食」,這觸食就是在天上有這種的眾生,他只觸一觸就可以了,還有鬼神等。「思食」,思食也是在天上,他到時候,不一定要吃,他就那麼禪悅為食,這麼思想一下,已經就飽了。「識食」,好像非想非非想處天,這四空處的眾生,都以識食-就有一個分別的識,他吃這個分別的識。「是故佛說」,因為這個,所以佛說「一切眾生,皆依食住」,一切的眾生,都要依食而住。

最初佛要破外道,就說這個:「一切眾生皆依食住,依食而住,就都要吃東西。」外道就好好笑了,說「怎麼這還叫一個佛法?這還用你說嗎?誰不知道一切眾生依食而住呢?還要你說嗎?小孩也都懂得嘛!誰不懂一切眾生依食而住啊?」佛說:「那麼你說這個食有多少種呢?」外道講不出來了,說不出來是有多少種食。所以佛就說有四種食-有分段食、有觸食、有思食、有識食,這個外道他根本就沒聽見過,就不懂了。所以這是佛想要破外道,所以說一切眾生依食而住。

阿難。一切眾生。食甘故生。食毒故死。是 諸眾生。求三摩地。當斷世間。五種辛菜。

這是第一個漸次-除其助因,這五辛就是助著造業的一個因,所以要先把它除去了。「阿難,一切眾生」,所有的一切眾生,就是這十二類的眾生。「食甘故生」,甘就是甜的東西,但是在此地講就不一定是甜的。總而言之,吃著它不苦 ,可以吃的,沒有毒的東西,這都叫甘,甘字就是代表一切可吃的東西,吃得覺得甘美香甜,所以說甘。故生,所以這個生命就會延長。「食毒故死」,吃這個有毒的東西就會死的,有毒的東西不一定說是真正有毒的,就好像五辛。總而言之,人吃了它就有一種不正常的感覺,這都謂之有毒。故死,所以就死得快一點,不是即刻死,就是死得快一點,壽命就不長了。

「是諸眾生」,所以一切眾生,「求三摩地 」,若是想要得到三摩地的眾生,當斷世間,五種辛菜」,應該首先除其助因,這個助因是什麼呢?就是斷了世間所有的五種辛菜。五種辛菜前邊已經講過,就是蔥、韭菜、薤,薤就是一種很大頭的那種,有野生的,有家裡生的。好像在外國吃的洋蔥,很大一個頭,都可以說是薤,那在中國人叫薤。蔥、韭、薤、蒜,還有這蒜就是garic ;蔥,onion:韭是什麼?我不知道了。薤,薤英文叫什麼,我也不知道了。洋蔥也叫onion?(弟子:是。)這五種裡還有一種叫興渠,這是大約在印度才有的,中國沒有這種東西,所以沒有翻譯。這種東西究竟是什麼樣子呢?大約也都是辣的東西,又叫興宜,這是五種的辛菜。辛呢,就是辣。

是五種辛。熟食發婬。生啖增恚。

這五種的辛菜:蔥、韭、薤、蒜和興渠。這五種東西如果你把它煮熟了吃,它就增加你的淫欲心。能增加淫欲心的,這肉類也是。為什麼修道的人不吃肉類呢?也就因為肉類幫助你的淫欲心,增加人的淫欲心。這五種辛的東西也是增加人的欲念,它不是增加一種正當的欲念,而是增加這種邪念-淫欲的念頭。吃五辛的東西多了,這淫欲就會令人發狂-男的也離不了女人,女的也離不了男人,就特別地有一種忍受不了的性質發生。

"Ananda, the twelve categories of living beings in this world, just described, are not complete in themselves, but depend on four kinds of eating. " They depend on eating to survive. "That is, eating by portion": bite by bite, bit by bit, the way beings in the Six Desire Heavens, the asuras, humans, and animals take their food. "Eating by contact": in the Dhyana Heavens of the form realm, beings can eat by contact and feel full. The ghosts and spirits are similar. "Eating by thought" also in the Dhyana Heavens, beings don't have to actually ingest the food. They take the bliss of Dhyana as food--they can eat by thinking about it. "Eating by consciousness": this includes the beings of the formless realm up through those in the Heaven of Neither Thought Nor Non-thought. They eat by the discriminations of their consciousness. "Therefore, the Buddha said that all living beings must eat to live."

That was at the beginning of his teaching, when the Buddha wanted to break through the doctrines of the heretics and non-Buddhists. When he said to them that all living beings must eat to live, the outsiders laughed at him and said, "You call that 'Dharma?' Do you think we had to wait for you to tell us that? Who doesn't know that beings have to eat to live? Even children understand that." In reply the Buddha said, "Well, tell me, then, how many kinds of eating are there?" At that point the outsiders were speechless. They couldn't come up with the answer. Then the Buddha explained the Four Kinds of Eating. They are: eating by portion, eating by contact, eating by thought, and eating by consciousness. The outsider group have not heard about this and don't understand. So in order to break through those doctrines of the heretics and non-Buddhists, the Buddha said all living beings depend for their lives on eating.

"Ananda, all living beings can live if they eat what is sweet, and they will die if they take poison. Beings who seek samadhi should refrain from eating the five pungent plants of this world."

This passage discusses the first gradual stage--getting rid of the aiding causes. The five pungent plants aid in the creation of unwholesome karma, and so the first step is to eliminate them from one's diet. "Ananda, all living beings can live if they eat what is sweet, and they will die if they take poison.""All living beings" refers to the twelve categories which analyzes in detail the causes for the existence of all living beings. "Sweet" here really means "edible"; the food is sweet in the sense that it is not poisonous, but is nourishing and palatable, so that life can go on. "Poisonous" here does not necessarily mean lethal poison, but refers to such things as the five pungent plants, which in this context are considered poisonous. It refers to any food which has an unwholesome effect on beings, and contributes to an earlier death. It doesn't just mean eating something which is instantly fatal.

"Beings who seek samadhi should refrain from eating the five pungent plants of this world." For those who want to obtain samadhi, the first step is to get rid of contributing cause. What is it? To cut off eating the five pungent plants. The five pungent plants have been described already. They are onions, garlic, leeks, chives, and shallots. The root of Hsieh is big. There are wild-plant and home-plant, similar as onions. Among the five, there is one called Sying Chyu probably only grows in India. There is no such thing in China, therefore no Chinese translation. What is it anyway? It's hot and spicy, also known as Sying Yi. So these are the five pungent plants. Pungent is hot and spicy.

"If these five are eaten cooked, they increase one's sexual desire; if they are eaten raw, they increase one's anger.

"If these five are eaten cooked, they increase one's sexual desire."Once you eat those cooked five pungent plants, your sexual desires will be increased. Meat has the same effect. That is one reason why people who cultivate the Way do not eat meat. Meat helps increase your sexual desire. The five pungent plants also increase desire, but not wholesome desire; rather, they are especially potent in increasing sexual desire. Therefore, men are not able to apart from women and women can't get away from men, to the point that it becomes unbearable and one goes crazy with lust.

To be continued

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