法界佛教總會•DRBA Logo

弟子規淺釋
Standards for Students

孫果秀註釋 Explained by Jennifer Lin

目錄

第八章﹕餘力學文

Chapter Eight ﹕ON LEARNING

不力行,但學文,長浮華,成何人。
但力行,不學文,任己見,昧理真。
讀書法,有三到,心眼口,信皆要。
方讀此,勿慕彼,此未終,彼勿起。
寬為限,緊用功,工夫到,滯塞通。
心有疑,隨札記,就人問,求確義。
房室清,牆壁淨,几案潔,筆硯正。
墨磨偏,心不端,字不敬,心先病。
列典籍,有定處,讀看畢,還原處。
雖有急,卷束齊,有缺壞,就補之。
非聖書,屏不視,蔽聰明,壞心志。
勿自暴,勿自棄,聖與賢,可馴致。

分6頁:1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

lie

dian

ji

 

you

ding

chu

陳列

書籍

 

固定

地方

to arrange in order

books

have

fixed

place

排放書籍雜誌,要有一定的位置。
Each book that you use should have its own place on the shelf.

du

kan

bi

 

huan

yuan

chu

完、結束

 

歸回

原來

地方

study

reading

to finish

to return

original

place

讀看完畢,要放回原來的地方。
After you finish reading, put the books back where they belong.

sui

you

ji

 

juan

shu

qi

即使

緊急

 

捲成一卷

用繩子捆紮

整齊

although

to have

an urgent matter

to roll

to bind

tidily and neatly

就是有急事,也要把書收拾整齊。
Even when in a hurry , you should close your books the right way.

you

que

huai

 

jiu

bu

zhi

殘缺不全

破損

 

那麼、立即

修補

to have

missing

damaged

then; right away

to repair

them

書籍如果有殘缺或破損,就隨時把它修補好。
If the pages or cover are damaged, be sure to take time to repair them.

前章說到﹕我們應及早訓練孩子在「整潔有序」上下工夫,讓孩子支配自己的人生,成為一個心靈條理井然的人;這不唯是對居家的環境而說,甚至對於所有穿戴應用的衣服物品也要珍重愛惜。

 

The previous passage said that we should teach our children early on to be tidy and orderly, so that they will know how to lead their own lives and be disciplined in spirit. They ought to cherish not only their home environment, but their clothes and belongings as well. 

 

前面講「謹」的部份已提過,不但穿衣戴帽,著襪納履要端正緊切,就是衣帽也要有定位,不可隨用隨丟,弄得又髒又亂;這兒再強調:對於書籍也是一樣,要保持整潔有序。一絲一縷,固然當思來處不易,對於聖賢之言的典籍,更要深生珍重之心。書籍的擺放要分門別類,各有其一定的位置,用時才方便:讀看過後,再歸回原處,下次讀用時,即時可以找到,豈不省了多少翻找的時間?

 

The earlier section on "Learning to Be careful" mentioned that one's clothes, hat, socks, and shoes should be neat and kept in their proper places; one must not casually leave them where they might get dirty or ruined. This section stresses that books ought to be kept in order as well. One must remember that even a piece of thread is hard to come by; how much the more should one treasure books containing the words of sages. Books should be classified and stored according to type, making them convenient to use. If they are returned to their place after one is done reading them, they will be easy to locate the next time one needs them, thus saving a lot of time.

古代中國的書籍,從最早的竹策、葦編,到後來的線裝紙面書,都很容易產生脫線缺頁,或磨損模糊的現象;所以取讀時必須小心,輕拿輕放,有破損缺頁,應馬上補修重釘,以免繼續散失或損毀。即使是現代的平面精裝版,若不加以愛護,也一樣會破損脫落或散失流佚;那麼下回再讀用時,是否得再買呢?若是絕版書,就有錢也買不到了!因此,日用間的條理井然,整潔有序,節省的不單是時間,也是金錢。一個人是不是有成就,是不 是能做自己的主,端看他日用間是否愛惜物事,條理井然 。

 

Ancient Chinese books-from the earliest bamboo tablets and reed pages to later string-bound paper books-tended to fall apart and lose their pages, or the writing would fade and rub off. Thus, it was essential to treat books carefully, picking them up and setting them down gently, and immediately repairing any damage. If pages were missing, one would immediately rebind the book to prevent further loss. If one does not handle a modern hardcover book gently, even it will fall apart and lose pages, and one will have to buy another copy the next time one wants to read it. If it is out of print, however, that simply won't be possible. Thus, the habit of being organized in one's daily life saves not only time but money. To tell whether people are successful and in control of their own lives, observe to see how organized they are and how carefully they handle things from day to day.

好學的阿伯拉罕•林肯,自小家境貧窮,必須半工半讀;林肯買不起許多書,大部份的書,都是他向人借來讀的。他在少年時候,就很佩服美國第一任總統喬治•華盛頓;一天,他跟朋友借到了一本《華盛頓傳》,他看了又看,總是手不離書,書不離手。一個夜堙A大雨傾盆,他簡陋的小屋漏水,把《華盛頓傳》打濕了;書烘乾後,仍是縐縐的,書皮也顯得很髒。

 

Abraham Lincoln, known for his love of learning, was born in a poor family and had to work to support his schooling. Since Lincoln could not afford to buy many books, he borrowed most of them from others. As a young boy, he looked up to George Washington, the first President. One day his friend lent him a biography of Washington. He read it over and over, unable to set it down. One night during a huge downpour, the roof of his humble home leaked and the book got wet. After he dried it by the fire, the pages were all wrinkled and the cover was stained. 

 

林肯很難過,心想:「如果把這樣的書還給朋友,以後人家有書,就再也不肯借我了!」因此他就去給人家做了三天工,把所得的工資,買了一本新的《華盛頓傅》,然後還給朋友。他的朋友很高興林肯的這種行為,把新書收下,卻又把書錢給他,叫他再買別的書來看。林肯感激得差點兒掉下淚來。後來他把那本淋過雨的《華盛頓傳》,天天捧著讀,把華盛頓當做自己的老師。從這個小故事看來,林肯自小就這麼珍視書籍,努力學習,又講究信用,因此終於能成就他的學問事業,解放了黑奴,當上美國的第十六任總統;這一切豈是用偶然和幸運可言的呢?

 

Lincoln thought in despair, "If I return the book to my friend in this shape, people will never lend me another book again!" Then he worked for three days, and used his wages to buy a new copy of the biography of Washington for his friend. His friend approved heartily of Lincoln's deed. After taking the book, he paid Lincoln for it and told him to buy another book with the money. Lincoln was grateful almost to the point of tears. Later, he reverently held the rain-drenched biography of Washington and read it every day, regarding Washington as his teacher. From that anecdote, we see that from his childhood, Lincoln cherished books, studied hard, and was absolutely trustworthy. Thus, he succeeded in completing his studies at last, freed the black slaves, and served as the sixteenth President of the United States. How could all of that have been mere chance or luck?

書籍是前人的智慧和經驗的結晶,讀書可以增長見聞,累積他人的知識學問為己用,做起事來就事半功倍;更重要的是可以從中熏習,養成正確的觀念,良好的品德,好處真是說也說不完!可是不論中外,年代愈是古老,造書愈是不易,書籍也就愈貴,加上政治社會造成的階級制度,教育亦不能普遍;因此很多貧寒低下的人家,因為無法就學,世代永難出頭。但是事在人為,歷史上也多的是苦學成功的例子,像林肯,還有前面提到的黑人教育家勃克•華盛頓。中國古代也有很多大學問家,都是以毅力和智慧來克服沒有書的困難。

 

Books are crystallizations of the wisdom and experiences of those who came before us. Reading broadens our perspective and enables us to adapt others' knowledge for our own use, so that we do things more efficiently. More importantly, we can develop proper concepts and good character through the influence of what we read. The benefits are endless! In every culture, the earlier we go back in history, the harder it was to make books and the more expensive they were. Due to the social and political systems in the past, education was not universal. Thus most poor and lowly families had no access to schooling and no opportunity to improve their lot. However, people can determine their own destinies, and there have also been examples of people who underwent hardships and achieved success, such as Lincoln and the black educator, Booker T. Washington. In ancient China, there were also many great scholars who overcame the hardship of the dearth of books by determination and intelligence.

 

《三字經》說﹕「披蒲編,削竹簡;彼無書,且知勉。」就說的漢朝的路溫舒和公孫弘。

 

A line in the Three Character Classic goes, "They wove rushes and shaved bamboo slips. Though they had no books, they pushed themselves to study." That line alludes to Lu Wenshu and Gong Sun Hong of the Han dynasty. 

 

路溫舒自小家貧,替人放羊;他就把寬寬的乾蒲草編在一起,然後向人借書來抄在上面,以便反復研讀,後來終成有名的文學家和政治家。公孫弘家境也很窮,一直到五十歲,還為人放豬度日。他為了想讀書,就利用在林中放豬的時候,把竹子削成片,去掉青皮,再把借來的《春秋》刻寫在竹片上;如此苦讀,終於當到了宰相。

 

Lu Wenshu came from a poor family and worked as a shepherd for others. He would copy books borrowed from others onto sheets of dried rushes that he had woven, so that he could read and study them over and over. Thus he became an eminent writer and statesman. Gongsun Hong also came from a poor family. Even at age fifty, he still herded pigs for others to support himself. Wishing to study, he whittled bamboo into slips, shaving off the green skin, then carved the Spring and Autumn Annals onto it from a book he had borrowed. Studying under such difficult circumstances, he eventually became the prime minister.

又宋朝的大文豪歐陽修,自小喪父家貧,母親歐陽夫人就在地上鋪了沙子,用荻草為筆,教子識字,給了歐陽修很好的啟蒙教育。這些故事,都是沒有書而仍能苦學成功的典範。我們現在印刷業發達,教育普及,人人可以讀書受基本教育;可是卻有越來越多的孩子不但不珍惜書籍,甚至逃學去做荒唐事,蹧蹋了個人的大好青春時光,更成為妨害國家社會的寄生蟲和害蟲,真是可惜可惜之至啊!

 

The great writer Ouyang Xiu of the Song dynasty also came from a poor family and lost his father at a young age. His mother, Mrs. Ouyang, taught her son to read by spreading sand on the ground and using a reed as a brush. She gave Ouyang Xiu an excellent primary education. Those are all stories of people who studied hard and succeeded despite the lack of books. Nowadays, with advanced publishing techniques and universal public education, everyone can get a basic education. However, not only are more and more children unappreciative of books, they even skip school to engage in improper activities, wasting their precious youth and becoming parasites and scoundrels of society. What a terrible pity!

分6頁:1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

▲Top