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弟子規淺釋
Standards for Students

孫果秀註釋 Explained by Jennifer Lin

目錄

第六章﹕汎愛眾

Chapter Six: ON CHERISHING ALL LIVING BEINGS

凡是人,皆須愛,天同覆,地同載。
行高者,名自高,人所重,非貌高。
才大者,望自大,人所服,非言大。
己有能,勿自私,人有能,勿輕訾。
勿諂富,勿驕貧,勿厭故,勿喜新。
人不閑,勿事攪,人不安,勿話擾。
人有短,切莫揭,人有私,切莫說。
道人善,即是善,人知之,愈思勉。
揚人短,即是惡,疾之甚,禍且作。
善相勸,德皆建,過不規,道兩虧。
凡取與,貴分曉,與宜多,取宜少。
將加人,先問己,己不欲,即速已。
恩欲報,怨欲忘,報怨短,報恩長。
待婢僕,身貴端,雖貴端,慈而寬。
勢服人,心不然,理服人,方無言。

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ji

you

neng

 

wu

zi

si

自己

才能

 

不要

自己

有私心

ourselves

have

ability

 

do not

be selfish

自己若是有才能,不要只為自己的利益打算。
The abilities we ourselves have should not be employed selfishly.

ren

you

neng

wu

qing

zi

別人

才能

不要

輕浮

誹謗批評

others

have

ability

 

do not

lightly

to criticize

別人若是有才能,不要輕易地誹謗批評。
The abilities others may have should not be belittled or scorned.

wu

chan

fu

 

wu

jiao

pin

不要

曲意奉承

富貴的人

 

不要

驕傲、看不起

貧賤的人

do not

to be obsequious

the rich

 

do not

to be arrogant

the poor

不要諂媚富貴,也不要傲視貧賤。
We should not flatter the rich or look down on the poor.

wu

yan

gu

wu

xi

xin

不要

厭棄

舊的(人事物)

不要

喜愛

新的(人事物)

do not

to dislike

what is old

 

do not

to delight in

what is new

不要厭棄故舊,也不要喜愛新奇。
What is old need not be rejected; what is new need not be sought after.

在一般的社會堙A有兩種很要不得的風氣,一種是對請益者「秘技藏私」,對有能者「嫉妒障礙」;另一種是對優勢群「趨炎附勢」,對弱勢群「落井下石」。怎麼說呢?

 

In society, there are two kinds of contemptible behavior. The first is to keep your skill and knowledge to yourself and refuse to impart them to those who request to be taught, being jealous and obstructive of those who have ability .The second is to draw near to those who are powerful, hoping to get some influence from them, while making things worse for those who are weak and in a bad situation. What do I mean?

第一種的壞風氣,是自己有某方面的學識技藝,人家來請教時,慳吝不肯指導傳授,生怕別人學成了比自己更行 ,總要藏一手,不肯傾囊相授;到最後,這些學識技藝跟他進了棺材,就此失傳了!而這種人多半自視甚高,對外呢,不是輕蔑,就是妒忌;不但同行相忌,異行也互相詆譭攻訐,弄得社會烏煙瘴氣,雞犬不寧。

 

The first kind of vile practice is when people stingily refuse to impart knowledge and skills to those who seek instruction, out of fear that others will surpass them. Such people always hold something back and don't pass on all that they know. In the end, their skills and knowledge go with them into the coffin and are lost forever! These people usually have an overly high opinion of themselves and regard others with either contempt or jealousy. Not only are they jealous of those in their own field, they also slander and attack those in other fields, wreaking havoc in society and destroying the peace. 

 

真正有仁慈心的人,考慮的是他人,是社會國家整體,絕不怕把自己所知所能的學識技藝與經驗分享他人。其實,個人的榮辱,在人類進化史堙A只是橫切面的一塵沙點,有什麼值得計較的呢?自負藏私,只能顯示自己的識見淺薄;而嫉妒計較,正是暴露自己的缺乏自信。仁者自然不為,智者也不屑為。

 

People who are truly kind and humane always consider the well-being of others as well as the society and country as a whole. They never hesitate to share their own knowledge, abilities, skills, and experience with others. In reality, an individual's glory or disgrace, when compared against the evolutionary history of humankind, is only a tiny cross-section of a mote of dust. Why should we be so concerned about it? To hide one's own abilities away only reveals one's own shallow understanding. To be jealous and obstructive exposes one's own lack of self-confidence. Humane ones spontaneously avoid such behavior, and wise ones would not stoop to it.

在一個盛大的宴會中,一個小氣的醫生回答了一位女士很多關於醫藥方面的問題之後,便偷偷問鄰座的律師﹕「我該不該向那位女士收費?」律師鄭重地回答﹕「你用專門知識指導她,她當然應該給錢!」第二天,醫生就寄出一張收費通知,請那位女士送十塊錢來。不久,郵差送來了一封律師的信,信上寫著﹕「請付律師費二十元。」這一則笑話,對吝於指導人的,真是一大諷刺。

 

Once, during a large, formal party, a woman asked a petty-minded doctor numerous medical questions. The doctor answered each question. Afterwards, he secretly asked the lawyer next to him, "Should I collect a fee from that woman?" The lawyer's sober reply was, "Since you have imparted your expertise to her, you should certainly ask her to pay!" The following day, the doctor mailed a bill to the woman for ten dollars. Soon afterwards, the postman delivered a letter from the lawyer. The letter said, "Please pay a legal fee of twenty dollars." This joke makes fun of people who are stingy about teaching others.

英國的格林費爾自劍橋大學醫科畢業後,因為他的道德、學識和醫術都很好,不多久就成了很有名望的醫生。有一次,他旅經北極附近一個叫拉不拉多的地方;那堣S荒涼又寒冷,三千多個居民靠捕魚維生,生活很苦,病了也沒醫藥,只有等死。格林費爾認為這兒的人更需要他,就留下來專為漁民服務,也不收錢。幾十年間,不知救活了多少人,漁民都十分感激他,當他是神仙般尊敬。

 

Greenfair, after graduating from Cambridge University Medical School in England, soon became an eminent doctor known for his virtue, knowledge, and medical skill. Once he was traveling past a place called Lapland, near the North Pole. It was cold and barren, and the three thousand inhabitants made their living by fishing. Their lives were wretched. If they fell sick, they had no medicine and could only wait for death to take them. Greenfair felt that those people needed him more, so he stayed there to treat the fishermen for free. In several decades' time, he saved countless people. The fishermen were deeply grateful and respected him as they would a divinity .

 

 

他六十歲生日那天,漁民為他開了個慶祝大會。正當大家開心說笑的時候 ,忽然有人來請他到六十哩外的一個村子治病;格林費爾馬上拿了醫藥箱,和大家告別,就冒著大風雪走了。他真是個慈悲濟世的菩薩啊!

 

On his sixtieth birthday, they held a great celebration in his honor. In the midst of the merriment and laughter, suddenly some- one showed up and asked him to go treat a patient in a village sixty miles away. Greenfair immediately grabbed his medicine chest, bid goodbye, and set off in the blizzard. He was truly a compassionate Bodhisattva who came to save the world!

第二種的壞風氣,源自「喜新厭舊」的心態;對物品是這樣,對人也是這樣。諂富驕貧,趨炎附勢,正所謂「錦上添花時常有,雪中送炭古來稀」。這種心態再衍發下去,有時為了攀附,更不惜把別人踩在腳下;甚至看人倒楣了,再落井下石,非至趕盡殺絕不罷休。真是說來令人齒冷,聽著教人心寒!但是這樣無情無義的人,其實才是真可憐憫者,更需要人好好教化!

 

The second kind of vile practice stems from an attitude of liking the new and growing weary of the old. This attitude is held toward things as well as people. Such a person butters up to rich people and is haughty toward the poor. He fawns upon power. As it is said, "There are always people willing to add flowers to brocade, but rarely are there people who will deliver coal when it's snowing." In order to elevate his own status, a person with this attitude will not hesitate to step on others. When he sees others in trouble, he will make things worse for them and not stop until he has done them in. Such behavior really makes one's blood run cold. Actually, such a person, who lacks feeling and conscience, is truly pitiful and in need of teaching.

漢朝古詩堙A有一首詩是敘述一個男人遇著他前妻的對白。那女人大概是看前夫一張苦瓜臉,穿著又邋遢吧,於是很關心地問候他新人好不好?她是在「三從四德」的舊教下長大的典型中國婦女,這樣地不計前嫌,並不算稀奇;倒是那個男人,既已喜新厭舊在前,新婚不如意,竟還拿新妻和舊妻織絹布的手藝、速度來做比較,說﹕「將縑來比素,新人不如故!」年幼時,覺得這種男人真是貪功愛財,寡廉鮮恥。大了一些,常讀歷史,比較能明因果,知體諒了,就只有深深地感謝;感謝中國「溫柔敦厚」的「詩教」,讓我們知所寬恕。

 

In the poetry of the Han Dynasty, there is one poem which describes the dialogue that takes place when a man runs into his former wife. Probably noting the grim expression on her former husband's face and the disheveled look of his clothes, the woman inquired after his new wife out of concern. Having been raised in the old society, where a woman was taught to serve her father, husband, and son and possess four feminine virtues, her generous behavior was quite normal. The man, who had abandoned his former wife for a new woman who turned out to be dissatisfactory, had the gall to compare the new wife's skill in weaving to the former wife's. He said, "In terms of weaving, the new one is not as good as the former!" In my youth, such a man struck me as being totally utilitarian and devoid of modesty . When I grew older, having read a lot of history, I began to understand the law of cause and effect and learned to be more understanding. I am deeply grateful that China has these instructional poems, which teach us to be gentle, virtuous, kind, and forgiving.

 

中國春秋時代,天子弱而諸侯強,到了戰國時代,權力更由諸侯王轉移到王族中聲望最高的人物。這些鬥閥中,最傑出的是「戰國四公子」。當時王侯貴族盛行養士,競相招攬有才藝之士做家中食客,名列「四公子」之首的齊國孟嘗君,更是號稱有「食客三千」。

 

During the Spring and Autumn Period in China, the emperor was weak and the feudal lords were strong. By the Warring States Period, the power shifted from the feudal lords to several people of the highest status in the royal family. Among these, the most eminent were known as the Four Princes of the Warring States Period. It was customary for these lords to surround themselves with talented men. They invited such men of ability to be lodgers in their home. For example, the leader of the Four Princes, Lord Meng Chang of the State of Qi, became known as "the one with three thousand lodgers." 

 

當孟嘗君因聲名威望而招來齊君疑懼,將他罷相遣歸原封邑薛地後,孟嘗君家中的食客走了一大半。後來孟嘗君靠著忠心相隨的馮驩,不但讓齊君把他再請回去當宰相,更增加他千戶的封邑。那些遠走高飛的食客又一一回來了,孟嘗君便想羞辱一下那些人。馮驩忙勸阻他說,肚子餓了就挨近,吃飽了就跑遠;溫熱的就靠攏,寒冷的就離棄﹕這本是人的通病,並非他們對事物的本身有好惡。身有好惡,只是因心中想要的東西在不存在,而產生不同的動向。不要因為這種情況怪罪他們,而杜絕了延攬人才之路。

 

Lord Meng Chang's increasing renown brought on the suspicions of the King of Qi, who removed him from his post as Minister and sent him back to his estate in Xue. At that point, the majority of Meng Chang's lodgers deserted him. Later, due to the efforts of his loyal follower, Feng Huan, not only was Lord Meng Chang welcomed back as minister, but he was given a thousand more families to oversee. The lodgers who had previously deserted him came back one by one. Lord Meng Chang wanted to shame them, but Feng Huan hastily stopped him, saying, "When they were hungry, they drew near; having eaten their fill, they ran off. When it was warm here, they came close; when it was cold, they deserted. This fault is common to all people. It was not that they did not like the situation here; however, when they did not find what they want, they naturally thought about going elsewhere. You shouldn't blame them for this, for that would hinder you from recruiting other men of ability ." 

孟嘗君體悟這道理是不錯的,就聽從了馮驩的勸諫。從這小故事,我們對馮驩其人,即使不敢說他是個真正的仁者,若稱之為深明事理因果的智者,可一點也沒過譽啊!

 

Meng Chang recognized the truth of Feng Huan's words and took his advice. In light of this story, although we dare not say that Feng Huan was one of true humaneness, it would not be exaggerating to say that he was a wise man who deeply understand the causes and results of matters.

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