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弟子規淺釋
Standards for Students

孫果秀註釋 Explained by Jennifer Lin

目錄

第二章﹕孝

Chapter Two﹕ FILIAL PIETY

父母呼,應勿緩,父母命,行勿懶。
父母教,須敬聽,父母責,須順承。
冬則溫,夏則凊,晨則省,昏則定。
出必告,反必面,居有常,業無變。
事雖小,勿擅為,苟擅為,子道虧。
物雖小,勿私藏,苟私藏,親心傷。
親所好,力為具,親所惡,謹為去。
身有傷,貽親憂,德有傷,貽親羞。
親愛我,孝何難,親憎我,孝方賢。
親有過,諫使更,怡吾色,柔吾聲。
諫不入,悅復諫,號泣隨,撻無怨。
親有疾,藥先嘗,晝夜侍,不離床。
喪三年,常悲咽,居處變,酒肉絕。
喪盡禮,祭盡誠,事死者,如事生。

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shen

you

shang

 

yi

qin

you

身體

如果有

毀傷

 

留給

父母親

憂慮

body

have

harm

give, hand down

parents

worry

身體如果有毀傷,會帶給父母親憂慮;
If you carelessly injure your body, you bring worry and fret to your parents.

de

you

shang

 

yi

qin

xiu

品德

如果有

毀傷

 

留給

父母親

羞恥

virtue

have

harm

give to

parents

shame

品德如有缺失,會帶給父母親羞辱。
If you heedlessly damage your virtue, you bring shame and disgrace to your parents.

前面說到處理父母的愛憎事宜,對我們而言,是相當大的考驗和磨練。這種孝心的實踐,不僅是須要耐心、勇氣和毅力,同時也須要智慧。否則一不小心,我們可能把自己陷入危險或不合乎情、理、法的處境堙A那就會導致有心孝順,而終不孝順了!

 

Above, the text discussed how we should deal with matters that our parents like and dislike, respectively. This presents a great challenge and difficulty. In order to practice filial piety, we must have not only patience, courage, and determination, but also wisdom. Otherwise, in a moment of carelessness, we may put ourselves in danger or else get caught in an unreasonable or illegal situation. Then, even though our intent was to be filial, we end up being unfilial. 

 

這話怎麼說呢?因為若為了父母的愛憎,或求之不易,或揮之不去,因而百般冒險犯難,不惜偷搶燒殺,甚至通敵辱國。這小則傷身敗命,大則足以毀家亡國;不但遺父母以憂慮,更令人譏笑父母於子失教,於己失德,真可謂遺臭萬年了!孔子說﹕「父母唯其疾之憂。」舉凡自己身體的,心理的,甚至影響到生命的損傷,都是會令父母不安的;所以愛護自己,間接的亦孝順了父母。

 

What do I mean by this? I am referring to a situation in which our parents like something very difficult to obtain, or else they dislike something which is very difficult to get rid of. In order to please them, we may risk our lives in all kinds of dangerous situations and even resort to criminal acts such as theft, robbery, arson, murder, or treason. On a small scale, we may endanger our own lives, on a larger scale, we may destroy our family and country. Not only will our parents be grieved and worried, but others will ridicule them for not teaching their child well and for lacking virtue. We will have brought upon them a disgrace that will last for tens of thousands of years! Confucius said, "Our parents' only worry is that we may fall sick." Our parents are concerned if our bodies, minds, or lives come to harm in any way Therefore, by taking care of ourselves, we are being. filial to our parents indirectly.

孔子就這樣告訴曾子﹕「身體髮膚受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也;立身行道,揚名於後世,以顯父母,孝之終也。」這就是說保健自己的身心,不令父母憂慮,只是行孝的初步;要做到圓滿,還得培養良好品德,進一步利益社會國家,以榮顯自己的父母。

 

Confucius instructed Zeng Zi "Not daring to harm our bodies, hair, and skin, which our parents gave us, is the beginning of filial piety. Establishing ourselves, practicing the Way, and developing a good reputation so that our parents will be honored is the fulfillment of filial piety." That is to say, staying healthy both physically and mentally so that our parents will not worry about us is only the first step of being filial. To practice Filial piety to perfection, we must develop a good character and bring benefit to the society and nation, thus shedding glory on our parents.

假如覺得這標準太高,最低限度,我們亦得不做惡事或任何不合情理之事,以免令父母蒙羞。《聖經》上亦說:「愛是不自私……不做羞恥的事。」在中國春秋時代,晉獻公因十分寵信驪姬,驪姬就想要晉獻公廢去世子申生,另立她自己的兒子承繼王位。有一回申生送祭肉去給父親,驪姬偷偷在肉堣U毒,然後誣告世子弒父篡位;晉獻公也不察清楚,氣得要殺死親生的兒子。申生想:「父親若沒有驪姬,會寢食不安。何況父親既要他死,怎可違抗呢?」結果也不加辯白,就含冤自殺了。

 

If this standard is too high, at the very least we must refrain from evil deeds and unkind actions, or else we will be a disgrace to our parents. The Holy Bible says, "Love is unselfish...it is to refrain from shameful deeds." During the Spring and Autumn Period [722-481 B.C.] in China, Lord Xian of the State of Jin was infatuated with his concubine Li Ji, who wanted him to do away with his eldest son (and his heir) Shen Sheng and make her own son heir to the throne. Once when Shen Sheng sent an offering of meat to his father, Li ji secretly put poison in the meat and then accused the eldest son of trying to kill his father and usurp the throne. Lord Xian, without looking into the matter carefully, was so furious he wanted to kill his own son. Shen Sheng thought: "My father would not be happy without Li ji. If he wants me to die, how could I go against his wish?" Then, without defending himself against the unjust accusation, he committed suicide. 

 

你說,這麼為順從父親的心意,寧可自己去死的人,在歷史上應被稱嘆是孝子了吧?沒有!他只得了個「恭世子」的諡號。孔子評論,那是因為他只知承順,不懂得孝道的真諦;不但傷身害命是不孝;陷父母於不義,令人唾罵他有這樣不智又不慈的父親,才更是大大的不孝呢!

 

Now, you would think such a person, who killed himself in order to comply with his father's wishes would be praised as a filial child in history, right? No. He only received the posthumous title of Prince Gong (respect), and Confucius' judgment was that while he knew how to be obedient, he didn't understand the real meaning of filial piety. He was unfilial not only because he injured his own body and took his own life, but he put his father in a situation of being seen as unrighteous. Others scolded his father for lacking wisdom and compassion; thus he was being truly unfilial.

所以不管是對父母行歡喜施或無畏施,都要有慧,以不傷身敗德為基本,不但不可以不孝,也不要太過火,而成為愚孝。宣公上人常教化人﹕「做人要愛國愛家愛身命。」真是深深了悟並實踐孝道的聖者之言啊!

 

Therefore, whether we are practicing joyful giving or the giving of fearlessness to our parents, we must have wisdom. We should base ourselves on the rule of not injuring our bodies or ruining our virtue. We should not be unfilial, but on the other hand we should not go overboard and be foolish in our filial piety. The Venerable Master often taught people, "As people we should love our country, love our family, and cherish our own bodies and lives." These are the words of a sage who has profoundly understood and truly practiced the way of filial piety.

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