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宣化上人開示錄(九)
Venerable Master Hua’s Talks on Dharma Volume Nine

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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肅恭齋法飯前三念五觀

The Three Recollections and the Five Contemplations Performed at Mealtime


不要不知道為什麼吃飯?為什麼穿衣?
為什麼睡覺? 迷迷糊糊,得過且過。
We shouldn't casually go through life in a muddled manner, not knowing why we eat, wear clothes, and sleep.

出家人用飯前有三念,首先用調羹吃三口湯,每一口作一念觀想: 

 

Left-home people make three recollections before taking their meal. They begin the meal by drinking three spoonfuls of soup, making one recollection with each spoonful.

第一念是「願斷一切惡」。斷惡,包括吃飯時不生分別心,不去分別這個有味道,那個沒有味道。有什麼便吃什麼,不要揀飲擇食,或者打其他妄想。不要想:「這個地方真不好,吃飯時又不准講話,很不自由,像坐牢。我來拜佛,還有這麼多規矩,真沒趣!」

The first recollection is, "I vow to cut off all evil." This includes not discriminating whether the food is good or not. Just eat whatever food is served. Don't be picky or indulge in idle thoughts as you eat. Don't think, "This place is not nice at all. We're not allowed to talk when we eat, and there's no freedom. It's like being in jail. I only came to bow to the Buddha, and there are so many rules to follow. It's no fun at all!"

要是這樣想,吃下去也不容易消化。不要總是找人家不對,「常瞅人不對,是自己苦未了。」為什麼你不好好地迴光返照,反求諸己?

If you have such thoughts, you won't be able to digest your food. Don't always look at other people's faults. "If you always see the faults of others, then you haven't put an end to your own suffering." Why don't you reflect upon and examine yourself?

第二念是「願修一切善」。要發願改過一切習氣毛病。修道就是諸惡莫作,眾善奉行。

The second recollection is, "I vow to cultivate all good." We should vow to correct all bad habits and faults. Cultivating the Way is nothing more than "doing no evil and practicing all good."

第三念是「誓度一切眾生」。願一切眾生都能離苦得樂,了生脫死。

The third recollection is, "I vow to save all living beings." We vow to help all living beings leave suffering, attain bliss, and end birth and death.

吃飯時又應存五觀:

During the meal, we should also make the five contemplations:

(一)計功多少,量彼來處:先計量自己有何功德來受此供養,又計算農人要經多少勞苦來耕耘這分米糧;應該籌量碗堶嗽釭漕蚞,是很不容易得來的。   1. Consider the amount of work involved in bringing the food to the table. Contemplate whether we have the merit and virtue to accept this meal. Then consider how much energy the farmers expended in planting and harvesting the crops. Think about all the different stages of preparation the food went through before it reached our plate. None of it came easily.
     
(二)忖己德行,全缺應供:忖者,度也。看看自己的德行,是否圓滿了?還是不圓滿?我能夠對得起這缽飯嗎?   2. Reflect on whether or not one's virtuous conduct is sufficient to entitle one to receive this offering. Have we perfected our virtuous conduct? Do we deserve to accept this meal?
     
(三)防心離過,貪等為宗:戒備己心,離開過非,不生貪念。不是說好吃的就多吃一點,不好吃的就不吃。不要揀飲擇食,好吃和不好吃的都是平等,要以此為宗旨。   3. Guard the mind from transgressions, principally that of greed. We must watch over our own mind and keep it from errors and greedy thoughts. We shouldn't help ourselves to more of the good food while not touching food that is not as appetizing. In other words, we shouldn't be picky about food. Whether it tastes good or not, it's food all the same.
     
(四)正事良藥,為療形枯:為什麼要吃飯呢?要把它當做良藥,資助身體。汽車沒有汽油不能走動,人不吃糧食不能生存。吃飯不是為貪好味,而是為治飢餓的病。   4. Regard the food as medicine to prevent the body from collapsing. Why do we need to eat? We should regard the food as medicine that provides energy for our bodies. Just as cars cannot run without gasoline, people cannot survive without food. We eat not for the taste of the food but to cure hunger.
     
(五)為成道業,應受此食:吃飯不是為了要吃好東西,而是為了修自己的法身慧命,成就道業。   5. This food is taken only in order to accomplish the Way. We eat not because we want to enjoy good food, but because we want to cultivate our Dharma body and wisdom life to accomplish the Way.
     
以上五觀,是吃飯時策勵身心的準繩。其他日常生活上,例如穿衣、睡覺等,也應該一樣。不要不知道為什麼吃飯?為什麼穿衣?為什麼睡覺?迷迷糊糊,得過且過。這些都是最切身的問題,應該了解得一清二楚。    These five contemplations are guidelines to be observed when we eat. They should also be applied to our other daily activities, such as dressing and sleeping. We shouldn't casually go through life in a muddled manner, not knowing why we eat, wear clothes, and sleep. These are all essential matters, and we should understand them very clearly.
     
     
一九七九年十一月七日開示   A talk given on November 7, 1979
     
     

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