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宣化上人開示錄(七)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Seven 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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何謂三藏十二部?

What are the Three Treasuries and the Twelve Divisions?


「十二部」就是經典的體裁,分為十二部。
The Twelve Divisions refer to twelve categories of Sutra text.

「三藏」,就是經藏、律藏、論藏。經藏是說定學,律藏是說戒學,論藏是說慧學。釋迦牟尼佛入涅槃之後,大迦葉尊者率領五百位證果的羅漢在七葉窟結集三藏,阿難尊者將佛一生所說的法,記錄成為「經藏」;優波離尊者將佛所規定的戒律,整理成為「律藏」;大迦葉尊者將佛弟子讀經研律的心得,收集成為「論藏」。

 

The Three Treasuries are the Sutras, the Vinaya, and the Shastras. The Sutra Treasury discusses the study of samad-hi. The Vinaya Treasury discusses the study of precepts. And the Shastra Treasury discusses the study of wisdom. After Shakyamuni Buddha entered Nirvana, the Venerable Mahakashyapa led five hundred Arhats to compile the Tripitaka (Three Treasuries) at the Seven-Leaf Cave. The Venerable Ananda recorded all of the Dharma which the Buddha had spoken in his life, and it became the Sutra Treasury. The Venerable Upali compiled the precepts set down by the Buddha, and they became the Vinaya Treasury. The Venerable Mahaka-shyapa compiled the treatises which the Buddha's disciples had written after reading the Sutras and investigating the precepts, and that formed the Shastra Treasury.

「十二部」,就是經典的體裁,分為十二部。所以有一首偈頌說:

 

The Twelve Divisions refer to twelve categories of Sutra text. A verse about them says,

長行重頌並授記,
孤起無問而自說,
因緣譬喻及本事,
本生方廣未曾有,
論議共成十二部。

 

Prose, verse, predictions,
Interjections, Dharma spoken without request,
Causes and conditions, analogies,
 stories of disciples' past lives,
The Buddha's past lives, universalities,
 previously non-existent teachings,
And commentarial literature together make up
 the twelve divisions.

(一)長行部:就是經文一行一行的長文。

 

1. Prose: This refers to the long lines of Sutra text.

(二)重頌部:用偈頌方式重複地再把經義說一遍,把長行經文重說。

 

2. Verse: The verses rephrase the meanings expressed in the prose sections.

(三)授記部:佛給菩薩授記的,譬如汝於某某劫,應當成佛,名號為何,壽命有多長,教化眾生有多少,在什麼國土堙K…等等,都預先說明了。

 

3. Predictions: The Buddha bestows predictions upon Bodhisattvas, telling them in which kalpas (eons) they will become Buddhas, what their names will be, how long their life spans will be, how many living beings they will teach, in what Buddhaland they will dwell, and so on.

(四)孤起部:孤單獨立的偈頌,與前文不相連,而且與後面的經文也沒有關係。

 

4. Interjections: These are isolated verses not related to the Sutra text preceding and following them.

(五)自說部:平時有人請法,佛才說法,唯獨《阿彌陀經》,無人請法,佛不問自說。

 

5. Dharma spoken without request: Usually, the Buddha would speak Dharma only after someone requested it. The Amitabha Sutra was the only Sutra that the Buddha spoke without anyone requesting it.

(六)因緣部:敘述某種事發生的因緣。

 

6. Causes and conditions: These are descriptions of the causes and conditions behind certain events.

(七)譬喻部:用比方來說明經文的義理。

 

7. Analogies: Analogies are used to explain the princi-ples in the Sutras.

(八)本事部:敘說佛、菩薩在因地所行的事蹟。

 

8. Former events: These are the deeds of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas when they were cultivating in the past.

(九)本生部:說佛、菩薩今生弘法利生的事蹟。

 

9. Stories of present lives: These are stories of how the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas spoke the Dharma and benefited living beings in this life.

(十)方廣部:就是方正廣大的經,有圓融無礙的境界。

 

10. Universalities: This refers to Sutras which are vast, great, and proper, and to the state of perfect fusion without obstruction.

(十一)未曾有部:就是從來沒有見過的神通變化。

 

11. Previously non-existent teachings: These may be spiritual penetrations and transformations which people had never seen before.

(十二)論議部:佛弟子研究經律的報告,或者佛與弟子討論的記錄。

 

12. Commentarial literature: These are reports written by disciples of the Buddha after they had investigated the Sutras and moral codes, or records of discussions between the Buddha and his disciples.

今將三藏十二部簡單介紹,教你們先有個印象,希望你們大家能深入經藏,智慧如海。

 

I have given you a brief idea of the Three Treasuries and the Twelve Divisions, and I hope all of you will deeply enter the Sutra Treasury and attain wisdom like the sea.

一九八三年十月十七日開示

 

A talk given on October 17, 1983

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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