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宣化上人開示錄(五)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Five 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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大道廢 有仁義

When the Great Way Declines, Humaneness and Righteousness Arise


當大道沒有了,才講仁義;有大道時,仁義一點也顯不出來,
因為仁義都在「道」媄銗]括著。
When the great Way disappears, people start talking about humaneness and righteousness.
When the great Way prevails, humaneness and righteousness are not obvious
because everyone takes them for granted.

人心不古,道德淪亡。

 

People no longer follow ancient ways;
Moral values have declined.

世界一天比一天往下流,而不知往上達。以前沒有這麼多學校,沒有這麼多人讀書,人反而沒有這麼顛倒卑劣;現在學校多了,讀書人也多了,世界壞人反而一天比一天多。

 

The world continues to decline, and there's no sign of improvement. Although education is more widespread than before, people seem more confused and depraved than ever. Even with more schools and students, there are more wicked people.

古來的人讀書是要明理,明白做人的道理,怎樣諸惡莫作,眾善奉行,學習孝悌忠信、禮義廉恥;現在的讀書人都為名利。「明理」與「名利」兩個音差不多,但是做起來是大相逕庭,相離十萬八千里。

 

The ancients studied in order to understand principles. They wished to understand how to be human, and how to refrain from evil and to practice good. They learned the virtues of filial piety, fraternity, loyalty, trustworthiness, propriety, righteousness, incorruptibility, and a sense of shame. Nowadays, people study in order to attain fame and profit. In Chinese, the phrases "to understand principles" and "fame and profit" sound similar (both are pronounced ming li), but their meanings are vastly different.

   

為名利而讀書的人,只想著要讀什麼書才可以賺大錢,譬如讀醫學或科學,都可以賺大錢,而沒有想,我讀書是將來要為人群謀幸福,學醫是要濟世救人,利人利己。現在的讀書人只會利己,而不知利人。甚至有一些教授學者公開鼓勵學生吃迷幻藥、行淫欲,或做種種擾人亂世的事,所以將世界弄得一天不如一天。老子說:

 

Those who crave fame and profit study medicine or science in order to make lots of money. They don't think, "I'm studying so that I can benefit society. I'm studying medicine in order to save lives and benefit others." Nowadays, many students are self-centered. They don't think about benefiting others. Some professors even encourage students to take drugs, be promiscuous, or take part in socially disruptive activities. As a result, the world grows worse day by day. Lao Zi said,

   

大道廢,有仁義;
智慧出,有大偽;
六親不和,有孝慈;
國家昏亂,有忠臣。

 

When the great Way declines,
there is humaneness and righteousness.
When wisdom appears,
 there is great deceit.
When the six types of relatives are not
in harmony, there are filial children
and caring parents.
When the country is in chaos,
 loyal ministers come forth.

   

當大道沒有了,才講仁義;若有大道時,仁義一點也顯不出來,因為仁義都在「道」媄銗]括著。當有智慧的人出現時,也就有虛偽的人同時出現,他會欺騙其他的人。

 

When the great Way disappears, people start talking about humaneness and righteousness. When the great Way prevails, humaneness and righteousness are not obvious because everyone takes them for granted. When wise people appear, charlatans also show up.

   

六親和睦,家庭不爭,父慈子孝,兄友弟恭,這才是和樂的家庭。但若六親不和,父不慈、子不孝,兄弟不友愛時,這時就有真正的孝子顯現出來。就好像大舜:

 

When the six types of relatives are in harmony, there is no fighting in the family. Parents are loving and children are filial; elder siblings are friendly and younger siblings are respectful. Families are truly happy and harmonious. However, during a time when relatives are not harmonious, when parents are uncaring, children are unfilial, elder siblings are mean, and younger siblings are disrespectful, then truly caring parents and filial children will appear. Consider the case of Great Shun [Emperor of China 2255-2205 b.c.]:

   

父頑、母囂、弟傲,
舜為克盡孝道。

 

His father was foolish, his mother licentious,
and his younger brother arrogant,
Yet Shun was able to fulfill his filial duties
to perfection.

   

大舜的父親頑古不化,名叫瞽叟,意謂他雖然有眼睛,但如同瞎子一樣,不認識黑白是非、曲直善惡,自己有個好兒子,卻不知道。大舜的後母,淫亂陰險,不講道理,很偏見的。大舜的後弟(象),非常傲慢,不恭敬大舜。大舜雖然生在這樣的家庭中,但他還是盡孝道,孝順父母,友愛弟弟。

 

The Great Shun's father was an obstinate and bigoted man named Gu Sou (Blind Old Man), meaning that even though he had eyes, he was just like a blind man. He couldn't tell white from black, right from wrong, straight from crooked, or good from bad. He didn't realize what a fine son he had. Great Shun's stepmother was a promiscuous, crafty, unreasonable, and prejudiced woman. His younger stepbrother, Xiang, was haughty and disrespectful. Even though his family was so terrible, Great Shun was filial to his parents and kind to his stepbrother.

   

當時,大舜的後弟與後母就想把他害死,所以有一天教他去收拾穀倉,等他進去倉房之後,象即刻點火燒燃倉房。整個倉房火勢烈烈,他以為把舜燒死了,就回去家堙A歡心暗喜,但不久舜也回來了,象非常驚訝地問:「你去收拾倉房,怎麼沒被燒死?」舜說:「我眼見起火了,就拿了兩個草帽從倉房上邊跳出來,所以也沒有摔傷,也沒有燒著。」於是這件事就這麼過去了。

 

One day his stepbrother and stepmother plotted to kill him. They told him to repair the granary, and after he stepped inside, Xiang set the granary on fire. The entire structure was soon in flames. Thinking that Shun would surely be burned to death, Xiang returned home, secretly delighted at heart. When Shun himself showed up a little later, Xiang asked in astonishment, "You were repairing the granary-how come you didn't get burned to death?" Shun replied, "When I saw the fire coming, I grabbed two straw hats and jumped from the roof. That's why I wasn't burned or hurt." And so the incident passed.

   

又有一次,舜去淘井,他們又想把舜害死。當舜下井之後,他們三人就用一個大石頭把井口堵住,他們以為這回舜一定會死掉。所以說「落井下石」,這典故就是從這兒來的。可是偏偏井旁有個窟窿,所以舜得以從井旁的地道出來。(有人說這地道是有隻白狐狸鑽出來的,所以把帝舜給救出來了。)雖然他們處心積慮想把舜害死,但舜一點瞋恨心也沒有,仍然照常孝順父母,友愛弟弟。

 

On another occasion, his family plotted to kill him when he descended into a well to clean it. They blocked the well with a large stone. They were certain that this time, Shun would die. The Chinese expression, "to throw a rock down on a person trapped in a well" comes from this story. There just happened to be a hole in the wall of the well, and Shun escaped through a tunnel which led from it. (Some say the tunnel was dug by a white fox who wanted to rescue the future Emperor, Shun.) Yet Shun did not hate his relatives for trying to kill him. Instead, he continued to be filial to his parents and affectionate towards his stepbrother.

   

當象以為舜已經死了,就要和父母分家,他說:「牛羊父母,倉廩父母;干戈朕,琴朕,弤朕,二嫂使治朕棲。」他的意思就是「牛羊給父母,倉房堛甄陪馱]分給父母,我不需要。可是舜的五弦琴、吹笛、練武用的干戈,我都要。舜的兩位妻子我也要,教她們來侍候我。」(帝舜的兩位太太是娥皇、女英,是帝堯的女兒,特意許配給帝舜,來服侍帝舜。)象說完之後,就到舜的房間去,可是一看,卻見到舜坐在床上好好的。象這回嚇壞了,以為舜的冤魂不散,回家來了。但舜卻開口安慰他,教他不用害怕。當時在堯舜期間,人心就有這樣的壞法,可是舜能克盡孝道,所以說:

 

Thinking that Shun was dead, Xiang had started to divide Shun's possessions with his parents. He said, "My parents can have the cattle and sheep. They can have the grain in the granaries, too, for I have no need of it. But I want Shun's five-string lute, his flute, and his shield and sword. I also want his two wives. Tell them to come and attend upon me." (Emperor Shun's two wives were E Huang and Nü Ying. Emperor Yao had purposely betrothed his two daugh-ters to the future Emperor Shun so that they could wait upon him.) Having said this, Xiang went into Shun's room, and there was Shun, sitting on his bed alive and well. Xiang was terrified, thinking it was Shun's spirit coming for vengeance. Shun reassured him, telling him not to be afraid.

Even in the time of the Emperors Yao and Shun, there were such wicked people. Yet Shun was able to practice filial piety and behave as a filial child should. Thus it is said,

   

六親不和,有孝慈;
國家昏亂,有忠臣。

 

When the six types of relatives are not in
harmony, there are filial children and
caring parents.
When the country is in chaos, loyal
ministers come forth.

   

在國家平安時,就是有忠臣,也顯不出來。但在國家昏亂時,哪個是忠臣,哪個是奸臣,就可以很容易辨別出來。好像南宋時,國家糜亂非常,奸臣秦檜把岳飛害死。岳飛流芳千古,而秦檜則遺臭萬年。「流芳千古」與「遺臭萬年」都是名,但一個是好名,一個是壞名。

 

Loyal ministers are not obvious in peaceful times. But in times of turmoil, they can be distinguished from the treacherous ones. During the Song Dynasty (960-1279 a.d.), a period when north and south China were divided and the country was in extreme turmoil, the treacherous official Qin Kui had General Yue Fei executed. Yue Fei's glory and Qin Kui's notoriety will both last forever.

   

又好像南宋的文天祥,在國家昏亂時,仍是忠於宋天子,始終保民衛國,總也不投降,這也是一位忠臣。所以國家昏亂時,才能顯出忠臣來。

 

Another example is that of Wen Tianxiang of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279 a.d.), a minister who remained loyal to the emperor even when the country was thrown into chaos. From the beginning to the end, he protected the people and defended the country, refusing to surrender. Loyal ministers become apparent only in times of chaos.

   

那麼我們現在建立道場,也是在困苦艱難的時候,這時才能看出真假護法。真護法的人,他要以佛教為己任,以護持三寶做為自己的責任。萬佛聖城現在一天比一天發展,需要人來擁護,有力出力,有錢出錢,誰也不要互相觀望著,你望我,我看你,這樣未免沒有在立功方面盡到心。我們應該把弘揚佛教做為自己的任務,把護持佛教做為自己的責任,這樣子佛教一定會發展,一定會發揚光大的。

 

In these present difficult times as we struggle to establish this Way-place, we can see which Dharma protectors are real and which are phony. A real Dharma protector takes Buddhism as his personal responsibility. He regards protecting and upholding the Triple Jewel as his obligation. The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas is expanding and needs people to support and protect it. Those who have strength can contribute their strength, and those who have money can donate money. People shouldn't just stand around looking at each other. If we just stand around staring at each other, we certainly aren't creating any sort of merit. We should consider it our personal responsibility to propagate and protect Buddhism so that it will flourish and prosper.

   

一九八二年六月五日開示於萬佛聖城

 

A talk given on June 5, 1982
at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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