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宣化上人開示錄(五)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Five 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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眾生的別業妄見和共業妄見

False Views Associated with the Individual and Collective Karma of Beings


因為有毛病了,才有虛妄生出來。
It's only when we have faults that such illusions arise.

在《楞嚴經》堙A有一段文是討論二種顛倒妄見的。什麼是二種顛倒妄見呢?

 

A passage in the Shurangama Sutra discusses two kinds of deluded false views. What are these views?

第一是「眾生別業妄見」。別業就是和其他人不同的,也可以說是「別分的妄見」。別業,就是單單自己的業,也可以說是「自業」。就是特別的,與眾不同的,這就是別業。

 

The first one is "false alse views associated with the individual karma of beings." Individual karma refers to one's own karma, which differs from the karma of others. This is also called "individually held false views." One's own karma is special and different from that of everyone else.

這種「別業妄見」,就是自己見解也特別、行為也特別,所以自己造的罪業也特別。這種別業妄見的人,就是好標異現奇,總覺得他自己與眾不同,好像一般的眾生在任何場合媄銦A都想要做第一,這和其他的業就不同了。

 

Individual karma also refers to each person having his own special outlook and behavior and thus creating his own particular offenses. Because of our false view associated with individual karma, we tend to act special and feel we are different from other people. For example, most beings will compete to be first in any situation. That makes their karma different from other people's.

   

標異現奇,這也是一種妄見,他妄行、妄做、妄為,造出這種的業,也就與眾不同,這都是一種妄想心所造成的。這個妄想,就是好高騖遠的心。因為他好高騖遠的關係,又標異現奇,獨出己見,所以就造成一種別業,與眾不同了。

 

Their attempt to act special and different is also a kind of false view. With false conduct, false actions, and false behavior, one creates karma that is unique, and so one's karma differs from that of others. All of this results from false thoughts. These false thoughts come from a mind that aims high but neglects the foundation. As a result of aiming too high, trying to act special, and having unique views, one creates karma which differs from that of other people.

   

第二是「眾生同分妄見」。同分,就是和一般人相同的,又可以叫「共業」。譬如天災人禍、天塌地陷,這一個地方一死就幾十萬、幾百萬,甚至於幾千萬的人一起都死了,這是共業,這就叫「同分妄見」,由這種妄想造成這種的同業。

 

The second one is "commonly held false views of beings." "Commonly held" means that it is shared by most other people. It is also called collective karma. An example is natural disasters and man-made calamities, in which "the sky falls down and the earth splits open," and hundreds of thousands, millions, or even tens of millions of people die together. That is collective karma arising from commonly held false views; it is shared karma resulting from those kinds of false thoughts.

   

因為眾生迷物為己、認賊作子,迷這個物,以為是自己,所以就造成同分妄見,這是由妄想所造成的這種妄見。這個「見」字,不一定是看見的見,而是見解的見,大家意見相同,這就是同分妄見。由眾生的妄想造成這種的妄業,於是乎就受妄報,所謂「起惑、造業、受報。」最初就因為不明白,所以就造了業;造了業,就要受報,這是眾生的共業。譬如荒旱,這地方的人都沒有飯吃了,這是這一個地方眾生共業所感。我來講一個「共業所感」的實例:

 

When beings get totally caught up in materialism and "mistake thieves for their sons," their false thoughts create commonly held false views. The word "view" refers not to seeing, but to perception; everyone shares the same opinion, so there are false views held in common. Beings' false thoughts lead them to create false karma, and consequently they undergo false retributions. That is known as becoming deluded, creating karma, and undergoing the retribution. In the beginning, beings create karma out of ignorance. Having created karma, they then suffer the retribution. That's the collective karma of beings. For example, when there's a drought and people have nothing to eat, that's a response due to their collective karma. Let me mention one case of collective karma.

   

民國三十三年(西元一九四四年),在中國河南省這個地方鬧荒旱,天不下雨。天不下雨還不要緊,天還生了蝗蟲。蝗蟲,就是在空中飛的一種蟲子,這種蟲子大約有三、四寸長,專門吃農產品,無論是菜蔬、小苗,農田堛滲悝@物,牠都吃的。這蝗蟲在天空一飛,遮天蓋日的,你用小網在空中這麼一撈,就可以撈這麼一大網。那時候,人就撈蝗蟲回來自己吃,因為人們什麼東西都沒得吃,就想吃蝗蟲。他們以為蝗蟲是吃農產品的,所以人就吃蝗蟲。

 

In the thirty-third year of the Republic of China (1944), a drought struck Henan Province in China. Not only was there no rain, there was also a plague of locusts. Locusts three or four inches long swarmed through the air and devoured all crops, including vegetables, sprouts, and anything growing in the fields.

The swarm of locusts blocked the sun, darkening the sky. There were so many that one could scoop them up with a small net to take home and eat. Having nothing else to eat, the people thought of eating locusts: The locusts had eaten their crops, and so now they were going to eat the locusts.

   

當時就有小孩子,看到虛空媕Y有一個白鬍子的老人,將一口袋一口袋的東西從天空倒下來;倒下來,就變成蝗蟲了。蝗蟲往地上一落,落到地上就有一尺多厚那麼多的蝗蟲。這麼一落,不是就一個地方一尺多厚,而是幾百里都有一尺多厚的蝗蟲,你說這蝗蟲有多少!人吃蝗蟲,你說奇怪不奇怪!這真是共業啊!回來把這個蝗蟲煮熟了,本來是蝗蟲,拿到桌子上正要吃的時候,就變成人糞了;蝗蟲自己就變成人糞,你說奇怪不奇怪?人再餓,也不敢吃自己的糞。不等著吃,就變成人的屎了,啊!業障就這麼厲害!所以就有很多人逃難,由河南到西京長安八百里路,每一天在路上死的人不知有多少,這些都是餓死的。怎麼餓死的?他越餓就越笑,在路上一笑,他就死了。這叫「同分妄見」,這是共業所感的報應。

 

At that time, there was a child who saw a white-bearded old man in the sky pouring down bag after bag of stuff that turned into locusts.

The locusts kept falling until they covered the ground a foot thick for several hundred miles around. Imagine how many locusts there were! Just think how strange it was-people were eating locusts. It was truly a case of collective karma! They caught the locusts, cooked them, and set them on the table, but when they were about to eat them, the locusts turned into human excrement. No matter how hungry people are, no one would eat his own excrement. Before they could be eaten, the locusts turned into excrement! That's how terrible karmic retribution can be!

Therefore, many people fled from Henan to Chang'an, a distance of about 270 miles. Countless people starved to death along the way. What is it like to die of starvation? The hungrier they felt, the more they laughed, and they died laughing on the road. That's known as "commonly held false views." It's a case of retribution resulting from collective karma.

   

什麼叫「別業妄見」?好像世界上有些人目有赤眚,就是在眼睛生有紅色翳子,晚間看燈光時,就看見燈光四邊有圓形的光暈。因為你眼睛有毛病,所以看見燈就生了變化了,那圓影媄銂嶊廕髜顒滿A青黃赤白黑什麼色都有。你說這個圓影是真的?還是假的?這就好像現在有的人本來眼睛沒有病,他自己要把它弄出毛病來。弄出什麼毛病呢?就是看東西看得不清楚了,生出一種妄見,虛幻不實的那個見,啊!看牆上也變了色,五顏六色,花花綠綠的。

 

What is the false view associated with individual karma? It can be compared to people who have cataracts in their eyes. When they look at a lamp at night, they see circular reflections around them. Because their eyes are diseased, their perception of the lamp is distorted and they see a halo of rainbow colors encircling the lamp. Are these reflections real or illusory?

It's like some people right now with perfectly good eyes who want to distort their own vision. How do they do this? They cause themselves to not see clearly, they view things falsely and have an illusory perception of them. They may look at a blank wall and see the colors of a rainbow there.

   

我以前見過一個人,他大概不知吃了LSD(迷幻藥)?還是其他的幻覺丸?他一邊看著牆,一邊哈哈地這麼笑得不停止,我說:「你為什麼這麼笑?」他說:「你看!牆壁上有很多五光雜色!」你看!這和那個赤眚的人是不是一樣呢?本來他眼睛沒有毛病,他吃了這種藥把自己弄得顛顛倒倒的,看這個牆也變了顏色了,你說這是真的?假的?那麼他就認為這是真的,一般沒有吃這個藥的人就認為他是在說夢話,說囈語。上面的例子是「別業妄見」。

 

Once I met a person who had taken LSD or some other hallucinogen. He stared at the wall and couldn't stop laughing. I asked him what he was laughing about, and he said, "Look! Beautiful colors of the rainbow on the wall!" Wasn't he just like the person with cataracts? His eyes were fine to begin with, but after taking that drug, he became confused and saw the wall changing colors.

Would you say his state was real? He certainly thought it was, but people who hadn't taken the drug thought he was delirious. The above examples illustrate the false view associated with individual karma.

   

什麼又是「同分妄見」呢?同分妄見,就是所造的業是相同的,大家都有一樣的業,可是這種業雖然是一樣,但人的面貌、人的環境、行為都各有不同。雖然不同,可是同造一樣的業,在這個不同的身分、不同的地方、不同的行為,又聚集到一起了,這叫同分妄見。這種見是由「業」而發生的,大家造什麼業就受什麼果報,又聚集到一起。所謂「善一夥,惡一群」,什麼人就找什麼人,什麼人也遇著什麼人,什麼業也就遇見什麼樣的果報。在不同地方造的業,在同一個地方受果報,因為「人以類聚,物以群分。」

 

What is meant by "commonly held false views"? This refers to the situation where many people create the same kind of karma. Although their karma is similar, they may look different, behave differently, and come from different environments. Despite all these differences, they all create the same kind of karma together. They play different roles, come from different places, and do different things usually, yet at some point they all get together, and that's how commonly held false views come about. These views arise from karma they created that was alike. Later, they meet again and undergo the retribution for whatever collective karma they have created.

There is a proverb, "The good flock together; and the evil gather in packs." Each person finds those of his own type. Each karmic act also incurs its own retribution. People may create karma in different places but receive the retribution in the same place. That's because, "People gather with their own kind, and things are sorted by their type."

   

好像人這個妄想所造成的南閻浮提世界,就在這南閻浮提媄銦A假設有一個小洲,這個小洲只有兩個國家,可是兩個國家所感果報不同。其中一個國家的人,就善業充滿。另一個國家的人,就惡業充滿,同感到有一種惡緣,一同受這個果報。惡緣,就是有不吉祥的境界現前,所謂:

 

Suppose that here in southern Jambudvipa (our world), which is created from people's false thoughts, there is a small continent with only two countries. The people of these two countries experience different retributions. In one country the people create plenty of wholesome karma, while in the other they create much evil karma. All the people in the second country experience the same evil conditions and undergo the same evil retribution. These evil conditions refer to inauspicious states that occur. There is an ancient saying,

   

國之將興,必有禎祥;
國之將亡,必有妖孽。
現乎蓍龜,動乎四體,
禍福將至,善,必先知之;
不善,必先知之。

 

When the country is about to prosper,
there are sure to be auspicious portents.
When the country is about to perish,
there are sure to be evil portents.
These portents are revealed in divination and
 reflected in people's actions.
Thus, both calamities and blessings can be
known in advance.

   

又說:

 

It is also said:

   

一人有慶,兆民賴之。

 

When a ruler has blessings and virtue,
the multitudes can depend upon him.

   

一人,也可以說是指國家的元首、國家的領袖、國家的總統。這一個人若是有福報的話,一般老百姓就跟著借光了、有福了;若是這一個人沒有福報,老百姓也就跟著受苦。所以一個國家有不祥的境界現前,就因為這個國家的領袖沒有德行。因為沒有德行,他就沒有智慧;沒有智慧,他就沒有福報;沒有福報,所以老百姓就跟著遭殃了。無論哪一個國家,若有災難重重,這都是當局執政者沒有修德行仁,所以才有這種的飛災橫禍。

 

"A ruler" can refer to the national leader, such as the president of a country. If this one person has blessings, all the citizens of the country can bask in his glory and enjoy blessings as well. If he has no blessings, the ordinary citizens will have to endure suffering. Therefore, when a country suffers misfortune, it's because the leader lacks virtue. Since he lacks virtue, he also lacks wisdom. Lacking wisdom, he won't have any blessings. Since he has no blessings, the ordinary citizens will suffer calamities. Whenever any country undergoes frequent disasters and catastrophes, it's because the leader who is presently in office does not cultivate virtuous deeds or carry out humane policies.

   

等惡緣現出來的時候,不是天旱,就是水澇,再不就是地震、山崩,這都是常見的一種災難。可是又有不常見的,好像暈、適、珮、玦、彗、孛、飛、流、負、珥、虹、蜺,這些都是災難的表現。

 

When evil conditions manifest, calamities such as droughts, floods, earthquakes, and landslides occur commonly. There may also be unusual portents, such as halos, hazes, and mists around the moon; different kinds of comets and meteors; various vapors around the sun, and morning and evening rainbows.

   

(一)月的災象有:

 

A. Inauspicious Omens Associated with the Moon:

   

(1)暈:就是有一股黑氣,讓人看了就不舒服,很特別的樣子,這股惡氣在月亮的周圍環繞著。所謂「月暈而風,礎潤而雨。」暈,是月亮的旁邊好像有水圍繞著轉圈,你看好像有水的樣子,不一定是水,但好像有水似的,這就表示會刮風了。造房子基礎的石頭若是有水,就表示會下雨。漢高祖被匈奴所困的時候,就出現月暈七重,所以漢高祖當時也就遭難了,幾幾乎被抓住殺了。

 

1. halo (yun): This refers to an ominous mass of dark vapor around the moon; just looking at it makes one feel uneasy. There's a saying: "If there's a halo around the moon, there will be wind. If there's moisture in the foundation (of a house), there will be rain." This lunar halo appears watery, although it may not really be water. It indicates that there will soon be a strong wind. Moisture in the foundation of a house indicates that rain is coming. When Emperor Gao of the Han dynasty was besieged by the Xiongnu tribe (the Huns), a halo of seven circles was seen around the moon; the emperor found himself in peril and barely escaped with his life.

   

( 2 )適:就是有一股黑氣,很昏暗的樣子,把月亮遮住了,不讓它露出來,但是這個也不是雲彩。

 

2. haze (shi): This refers to a murky haze (different from clouds) covering the moon.

   

( 3 )珮:就是惡氣環繞著月,就好像環珮似的,太陰旁邊就像女人帶著玉珮一樣。

 

3. "girdle ornament" (pei): This refers to an evil mist encircling the moon like a girdle ornament worn by a woman.

   

( 4 )玦:就是惡氣環繞一半。

 

4. "incomplete jade ring" (jue): This refers to an evil mist encircling half of the moon.

   

這是月的災象。總而言之,太陽、太陰的旁邊都不可有什麼;它一有東西就有不好的現象。可是這種「同分妄見」就只有造惡業這個國家看見,造善業這個國家就沒有。雖然兩個國是挨著的,可是一個國家就看得見,一個國家就看不見。

 

The above are inauspicious omens associated with the moon. In general, anything surrounding the sun or the moon is a bad omen. The common false views are such that the people of one country, who create bad karma, can see these signs, while those of the other country, who create good karma, don't see them. Although the two countries are right next to each other, the people in them see different things.

   

(二)星的災象有:

 

B. Inauspicious Omens Associated with Comets and Meteors:

   

( 1 )彗:就是彗星,在中國俗稱「掃把星」,它的光芒四射,射出去很遠很遠的,是一種很長的星。在中國秦始皇的時候,常常有彗星出現,所以當時的老百姓都非常地痛苦。

 

1. comet (hui): In China, this is called a "broom star" because it shoots out sparks and leaves a long trail of light. During the reign of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty, comets appeared frequently, and so the common people suffered great misery.

   

( 2 )孛:它也是光芒四射的,但是它射出來的不遠,就像火苗子似的,沒有了又出來,出來又沒有了,這叫做孛星。

 

2. comet in opposition (bo): This kind of comet also shoots out sparks, but intermittently and without leaving a trail of light.

   

( 3 )飛:就是在空中飛的,從這邊飛到那個地方,就在空中這麼橫過去,在中國叫它是「流星」,又叫「賊星」。

 

3. shooting star (fei): This is a meteor which appears to fly across the sky, passing overhead from one side to the other. It is also known as a "renegade star."

   

(4 )流:光芒下注的,叫流星;它的光很亮的,射到人間來,就是那個隕石從天上落下來,像下雨那麼多似的。

 

4. fireball (liu): This kind of meteor gives off showers of light and is very bright. When it enters the earth's atmosphere, meteor rocks fall from the skies as numerous as raindrops.

   

這些都是一種非常的災難表現,是星辰示現的一種惡境、惡兆。

 

The above omens of comets and meteors are indications of unusual calamities.

   

(三)日的災象有:

 

C. Inauspicious Omens Associated with the Sun (These are all atmospheric conditions):

   

( 1 )負:就是惡氣在太陽的上邊,叫做負。

 

1. fu ("to carry on the back"): This is an evil vapor above the sun.

   

( 2 )珥:就是惡氣在太陽的旁邊,就像生出耳朵似的,叫做珥。

 

2. "ears" (er): This evil mist on each side of the sun makes it seem as if the sun had ears.

   

( 3 ) 虹蜺:虹,俗語念「杠」音,文言念「紅」音,是常常出現的,早上起來見的叫「虹」,晚間見到的叫「蜺」。有的人說「虹」屬於雄,「蜺」屬於雌;總而言之,就是陰陽的意思,這就是天地很不正常的現象。虹就是雨過天晴的時候,一般人常常見到的,不過有的不是那麼惡,是普普通通下雨天晴後常常見的。但是這種有災禍的「虹蜺」,看上去總是陰陰的,不是那麼光彩;雖然看到的也是花花綠綠,好像很好看似的,可是那有一股煞氣在媕Y藏著,會看的人,一看就知道這是不吉之兆。

 

3. morning and evening rainbows: Hong is the classical pronunciation; its more colloquial pronunciation is gang. Hong refers to the rainbows commonly seen at dawn. Those seen at dusk are called ni. Sometimes hong is considered male and ni female. In general, such rainbows are classified as yin or yang, and they are abnormal phenomena. Ordinary rainbows that appear after a rainfall are not evil, but hong and ni, which are rather dark, are portents of calamities. They may seem colorful and pretty, but they carry a lethal energy. People who know how to look will know at a glance that they are omens of misfortune.

   

所以這種種的惡象,不是單單以上所說的這幾種,還有很多很多種種的惡象,這都是不吉祥的事情。好像或者見到兩個太陽,為什麼會有兩個太陽呢?這是主於國家有大的變化,所謂

天無二日,民無二王。

 

There are many, many varieties of inauspicious omens. For example, the appearance of two suns indicates that a great change is about to occur in the country. There is an ancient saying,

The sky cannot hold two suns.
The people cannot serve two kings.

   

或者這個皇帝死了,另外一個皇帝把這個皇帝殺了;或者這個總統把那個總統殺了。或者天上沒有兩個太陽,而是兩個太陰(月亮),你見到兩個太陽、兩個太陰這種的預兆,這也是主於國家不吉祥的。或者譬如有的時候樹就會說話,聽到有人在樹上講話,但是看不見人,這些就是「怪異」,都是不祥的境界。又好像打颶風、下大雨等等。譬如前一個時期,在美國的東部颳大風(旋風),把人和房子也都吹到虛空媕Y去了,樹也連根拔起,都沒有了,死了幾百人那麼多,這都叫不吉祥的事情,這都叫惡緣。

 

If there are two kings or two presidents, one of them may murder the other. There may also be two moons in the sky. Two suns or two moons is an inauspicious portent for the country. Sometimes trees may talk. You may hear a voice coming from the tree, but you can't see anyone there. These uncanny events are all inauspicious. Other calamities include typhoons, storms, and so forth.

   

同樣在這個國家,有的人就受這種惡的果報,有的人就沒有,好像三藩市這奡N沒有受到這種的惡緣,所以你就不知道受這種果報的痛苦。

 

For example, the recent tornado in the Eastern United States lifted people and houses into the air, uprooted trees, and took several hundred lives. In the same country, some people undergo such retribution, while others do not. For example, those of you in San Francisco were not affected by the tornado in the East, so you don't know what it was like to suffer that kind of retribution.

   

所以同樣兩個國家,一個國家的人都能看得見這種惡緣,一個國家的人就看不見這種的境界。所以這叫「同分妄見」,造同樣的罪業,他們就看得見;沒有這個罪業的,就看不見。這一個國家業力相同的,就有這種的妄見;業力不相同的,就沒有這種的妄見。

 

In the example of the two neighboring countries discussed earlier, the people of one country perceive the inauspicious signs, while those of the other country do not. This is because of commonly held false views. The people who committed the same kind of offense karma could see the signs, while those who didn't have such offense karma could not. When the people of a country share the same kind of karma, they have this kind of false view. If everyone's karma were different, then this kind of false view wouldn't exist.

   

就像前面所講的,眼睛有毛病的人,就見到圓影;人若有這種的業障,就會見到國土有種種的不祥。以這一個有病的人見圓影,譬喻這全國的人見到這種種的災象,這就是業障所現出來的,眾生造業,就要受果報。

 

In the previous case, the person with defective eyes seeing circular reflections is analogous to the people of one country who see inauspicious omens as a result of their evil karma. Beings must undergo the retribution for whatever karma they create.

   

所以眼睛有眚病的人,才見到這種圓影,這跟我們本有的覺性,是沒有關係的,本有的見性是沒有毛病的。所以,一國人的「同分妄見」和單單一個人的「別業妄見」,這都是虛妄的見。這一個人見到圓影,和這一切眾生見到種種災難,這都是有毛病了,才有這個虛妄生出來。

 

Although people with cataracts see circular reflections, it has nothing to do with their inherent enlightened nature. Their inherent "seeing nature" is not defective. Therefore, both the commonly held false views shared by the people of the one country and the individually held false view belonging to a single person are delusions. As for the circular reflections seen by one person and the calamities witnessed by many, it's only when there are karmic disorders that such false illusions arise.

   

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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