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宣化上人開示錄(四)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Four 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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要修般若波羅蜜多

Cultivate the Prajnaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom)!


迴光返照,觀察觀察自己在不在?
Look within and contemplate whether or not you're here.

「觀自在菩薩。行深般若波羅蜜多時。照見五蘊皆空。度一切苦厄。」這四句是《心經》的精華要理。略釋如下:「觀自在」,是教你迴光返照,觀察觀察自己在不在?自己若在,就不會向外馳求,到處攀緣。若是不在,則容易妄想紛飛,甚至發神經,總要找機會,令人供養。有這種思想,那就不自在。

 

"When the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara was cultivating the profound Prajnaparamita, he illuminated the Five Aggregates (Skandhas), saw that they were all empty, and crossed beyond all suffering and difficulty..." This line is the Heart Sutra's essential message, and it can be explained as follows: The Contemplator of Self-Presence (Avalokiteshvara) wants you to reflect inwardly and contemplate whether or not you're here. If you're here, then you won't be seeking outside and exploiting situations. If you are not here, then your idle thoughts will be running wild, to the point that you have a nervous breakdown. You'll always be looking for chances to obtain offerings from people. With such thoughts, you will not be at ease.

「菩薩」的行為,一切是利益眾生,以眾生為前提,絕對不是為利益自己。我們凡夫的思想,恰好相反,總想利益自己,而不利益眾生。無論做什麼事,先要計較一番,有利的就做,沒有利的就不做,這就是自私自利的表現。世界為什麼不能和平相處?就因為這種關係。你爭我奪,互不相讓,所以就發生戰爭,造成國破家亡的殘局。

 

In everything a Bodhisattva does, he benefits others. Living beings are his raison d'etre, and he would never act for his own benefit. We common people think in exactly the opposite way: we think first of benefiting ourselves and never think of benefiting living beings. In everything we do, we first count up the profits: if the deed is profitable, we go ahead and do it. If it isn't, we don't do it. This is a selfish and self-gratifying attitude. Why can't the world find peace? Precisely because of this attitude. We strive and compete, and refuse to yield to one another. Thus wars break out, and we witness the tragedy of families being torn apart and nations collapsing.

這位菩薩,他能「行深般若波羅蜜多」,從無始劫以來,一直到現在,生生世世都修深般若法,沒有間斷的時候。修深般若法,(一)沒有驕傲心;若有驕傲心,就是愚癡。(二)沒有自滿心;若有自滿心,就是愚癡。(三)常生慚愧心;不生慚愧心,就是愚癡。(四)不生攀緣心;若生攀緣心,就是愚癡。(五)不生瞋恨心;若生瞋恨心,就是愚癡。(六)不生顛倒心;若生顛倒心,就是愚癡。

 

This Bodhisattva can practice the profound Prajnaparamita. From beginningless time in the past up to this present moment, in life after life, he has practiced the method of Prajna, cultivating it without pause. The first requirement for cultivating profound Prajna is to avoid arrogance. Being arrogant is stupid. Secondly, one must avoid complacency. Being complacent is stupid. The third requisite is to always feel shame and remorse. Not feeling shame and remorse is stupid. The fourth requisite is to avoid exploiting situations. Exploiting situations is stupid. The fifth requisite is to avoid anger and hatred. Feeling anger and hatred are stupid. The sixth requisite is to not be disoriented. Being disoriented is stupid.

   

我們修道人,以這六種心做為標準,衡量自己所行所作,是否如法?如法就是智慧,不如法就是愚癡。也就是說,勤修戒定慧,息滅貪瞋癡,就是智慧;不修戒定慧,不滅貪瞋癡,就是愚癡。智慧和愚癡的分別,就在這個地方。

 

Cultivators of the Way make these six requisites their standard in judging to see whether their own behavior accords with the Dharma. If it accords with the Dharma, then that behavior is considered wise. In other words, to diligently cultivate precepts, concentration, and wisdom, and to put an end to greed, hatred, and stupidity is wise behavior. To fail to do this is stupid behavior. The difference between wisdom and stupidity lies right here.

   

要修深般若,才會照破五蘊中的五十種魔境:在色蘊中有十種陰魔,在受蘊中有十種陰魔,在想蘊中有十種陰魔,在行蘊中有十種陰魔,在識蘊中也有十種陰魔。總括來講,有這五十種;分開來講,有無數無量種,如有不慎,就墮入魔境。總而言之,凡是有邪知邪見的人,都是屬於魔的眷屬;有正知正見的人,都是屬於佛的眷屬。

 

One must cultivate profound Prajna before one can "illuminate and shine through" the fifty states of the skandha-demons found amid the Five Aggregates (skandhas). Ten demonic states appear in each of the Aggregates of Form, Feelings, Thoughts, Activities, and Consciousness. Generally speaking there are fifty states, but when we look into each case separately, there are measureless, innumerable varieties of states. If a cultivator is not careful, he can easily fall into the demons' snares. In general, all people who make use of deviant knowledge and views belong to the retinue of demons. People with proper knowledge and viewpoints, however, belong to the retinue of Buddhas.

   

行深般若波羅蜜多時,才能認清魔的境界,不會被其動搖。這時候,不但照見五蘊皆空,也度一切苦厄。五蘊皆空,即是真空,所謂:

真空無人我,
大道無形相。

 

Only when we practice the profound Prajnaparamita can we recognize the demons clearly and not be shaken or influenced by them. When we practice thus, not only can we shine through the Five Aggregates and see how they are all empty, but we also cross beyond all suffering and difficulty. The emptiness of the Five Aggregates is True Emptiness. As a saying goes,

True Emptiness is free of self and others;
The great Way is free of shape and features.

   

一切苦厄,就是三災八難之苦厄。

 

Suffering and difficulty refers to the three disasters and the eight types of difficulties.

   

若能將這四句經文的法,修到爐火純青的時候,就證得八風吹不動的境界。何謂八風?就是稱、譏、苦、樂、利、衰、毀、譽。這八種風,能把沒有定力的人,吹得昏頭轉向,不知東西南北。今將這八風淺釋如下:

 

If we can cultivate the Dharma in this verse to perfection, we will attain a state in which the Eight Winds cannot affect us. What are the Eight Winds? They are praise, ridicule, pain, pleasure, gain, loss, defamation, and honor. The Eight Winds blow people who lack samadhi-power head over heels, until they cannot tell east from west. Let's look more closely at these eight winds:

   

(一)稱:就是稱讚。人家稱讚你一聲,覺得比吃蜜還甜,心堳傿峈A。

 

1. Praise: This means adulation. When others praise you, it tastes as sweet as honey; it's a comfortable sensation.

   

(二)譏:就是譏諷。人家諷刺你一句,就受不了,心奡N不舒服。

 

2. Ridicule: This means somebody makes fun of you. If someone mocks you, even a little, you can't stand it, and it's a very uncomfortable sensation.

   

(三)苦:就是苦惱。受一點苦楚,煩惱就起來了;一切苦來折磨你,看你受得了受不了。

 

3. Pain: This means suffering. When you experience a little bit of suffering, you become afflicted. Whenever suffering behfalls you, it is a test to see whether or not you can forbear it.

   

(四)樂:就是快樂。受一點快樂,不要得意忘形;一切樂都是考驗,看你怎麼辦?

 

4. Pleasure: This refers to happiness. You should not let a little happiness overwhelm you. All kinds of happy states are tests, to see what you will do with them.

   

(五)利:就是利益。得到利益就高興,失去利益就悲哀,這是沒有定力的表現。

 

5. Gain: This refers to getting advantages. You become pleased when you gain benefits and are sad when you lose them. This shows a lack of samadhi-power.

   

(六)衰:就是衰敗。無論遇到什麼艱難,要損失不計較,失敗不動心。

 

6. Loss: This refers to failure. No matter what difficulties arise, we ought to take them in stride and not be upset when we lose out.

   

(七)毀:就是毀謗。有人毀謗你,說你的壞話,無所謂!應該處之泰然,自然風平浪靜。

 

7. Defamation: This means slander. If someone insults you and spreads tales about you, you shouldn't mind. You should let it pass, come what may. The entire episode will eventually calm down all by itself.

   

(八)譽:就是榮譽。有人讚歎你,宣傳你的名望,仍要無動於衷,視功名猶如瓦上霜。

 

8. Honor: This refers to situations of exaltation. If you are praised by someone and he makes your name known, you should take it in stride and regard glory and honor as no more important than frost on the windowpane at dawn.

   

這八種風,是考驗「心」的法門,在逆境不動心,在順境也不動心。若是動心,就是修持不夠,沒有定力的功夫;若是不動心,便證明有功夫。但是不能自滿,自我宣傳:「八風也吹不動我,我的定力猶如金剛一般地堅固。」這樣也不對。

 

The Eight Winds are dharmas that test your mind, to see whether adverse or favorable situations will upset your equilibrium. If they upset you, your cultivation still lacks maturity and you are deficient in the power of samadhi. Someone who remains unmoved by such states has realized genuine skill. Even so, he can't feel complacent and boast "The Eight Winds cannot blow me over, because my samadhi is as solid as Vajra." That is also wrong.

   

在宋朝有位蘇東坡居士,他對佛學略有研究。雖然他禪定功夫還不夠,卻自覺定力到了相當程度。有一天,心血來潮,靈感忽至,寫了一首偈頌:「稽首天中天,毫光照大千,八風吹不動,端坐紫金蓮。」他以為自己已經開悟,所以請佛印禪師給他印證,於是派遣侍者過江,把偈頌送到金山寺。

 

In the Song Dynasty, the layman Su Dongpo was adept in Buddhist study. Although his skill in Chan concentration was immature, he felt himself to be quite accomplished. One day, feeling exuberant and possessed by a sudden inspiration, he penned a verse:

I pay my respects to the chief of gods,
Whose hairmark-light illumines the universe;
The Eight Winds blow me not, as I
Meditate on this purple-golden lotus.

He thought he'd already gained enlightenment, and he wanted this enlightenment certified by Chan Master Foyin (Buddha-seal). Thereupon, he sent his servant to Gold Mountain Monastery across the river from his home.

   

老禪師一看,在原紙上寫上:「放屁!放屁!」四個字,交給來人(侍者)帶回。蘇東坡一看,無明火冒三丈高,大發雷霆,豈有此理!這是開悟的偈頌,怎說是放屁?於是過江來找佛印禪師算賬。

 

The elderly Chan Master took one look at the verse the messenger handed him and wrote two words on the paper: "Fart! Fart!" and told the attendant to take the message back. Su Dongpo read the reply and blew up in a fit of anger. He thundered, "How dare you! This is my enlightenment testimonial; how dare you call it a fart!?" He promptly rowed across the river to settle accounts with Chan Master Foyin.

   

不料,來到金山寺的山門時,佛印禪師已在那媯市搘L的光臨,就大笑地說:「好一位八風吹不動的蘇大學士,竟被屁風吹過江來,歡迎!歡迎!」(因為他們二人是老道友,時常開玩笑)蘇東坡滿肚子的火,剛要爆炸,被老禪師一說,覺得有理,於是承認自己定力不夠,乃向禪師頂禮謝罪。從此之後,不再說口頭禪了。禪是行的,不是說的,能說不能行,是無有是處的。

 

Unexpectedly, as soon as he reached the gate of Gold Mountain, Chan Master Foyin was waiting for him, to say "Oh, welcome! Welcome to the Great Adept Su Dongpo, one who is unmoved by the Eight Winds, but who lets a couple of tiny farts blow him all the way across the river. Welcome!" The two were old friends and fellow cultivators, and they were in the habit of joking with each other. Su Dongpo's volcanic anger, right on the verge of exploding, was cooled off completely by the truth of the Chan Master's statement. All he could do was admit that his samadhi still lacked maturity and bow to Master Foyin. He apologized for making a scene, and thereafter he avoided bragging. Chan skill is proven by practice, not by prattle. If you can't practice what you preach, it doesn't count.

   

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