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宣化上人開示錄(四)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Four 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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天竺取經的玄奘大師

The Story of Great Master Hsuan Tsang, Who Went to India in Search of Sutras


寧向西天一步死,不願東土一步生。
I would rather die while making one last step towards the West,
than live by retreating one step towards the East.

玄奘法師生於隋文帝仁壽二年(西元六○一年),河南陳留人,俗姓陳,幼年即有過人的智慧,七歲時便開始讀五經。在十三歲那年,隨其二兄長捷法師到洛陽淨土寺出家,誦習經典。隋朝制度,凡是出家修道之人,必須經過考試合格,頒發證書(度牒),才有資格做沙彌。當時正逢洛陽度僧,玄奘法師年幼,不能參加考試。他在考場門前徘徊,望之興嘆!而被主考官鄭善果發現,認為是佛門龍象,故特別破例度之。

 

Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang was born in the second year of the reign period Renshou of the Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty (a.d. 601). His home was in Honan Province, Chenliu County, and his lay surname was Chen. Even as a young boy, his wisdom surpassed his peers. At age seven, he began to study the Five Classics, and at age thirteen, he travelled with his second elder brother, the Dharma Master Chang Jie, to Pure Land Monastery in Luoyang to leave the home-life and study and recite Sutras. According to the laws of the Sui Dynasty, people who wished to leave the home-life had to pass an examination and receive certification before they could qualify to become Shramaneras (novice monks). The two of them reached Luoyang just as the clerks were enrolling candidates for Sangha membership. Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang was too young, and was not qualified to take the examination. He anxiously paced back and forth outside the door of the examination hall, sighing in consternation. But then he was discovered by the supervisor of the examinations, Mr. Shanguo Zheng. The man recognized the boy as a potential asset to Buddhism, and made a special exception to the standards, in order to admit him into the Sangha.

二十歲受具足戒之後,他就到處參訪善知識,發現眾師所說,與經典頗有歧異,令人無所適從。尤其《十七地論》,見解不同。乃發願到天竺(即印度)研究,以解其惑。

 

After receiving full ordination at age twenty, Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang travelled about, learning from Good and Wise Advisors. He discovered that the teachings of the various masters differed in large measure from the Sutra texts in the Canon, and as a result, no one knew where to turn. This was especially the case with the Shastra on the Seventeen Stages, which produced many different opinions. Master Hsuan Tsang thus made a vow to go to India to investigate the Dharma, in order to resolve his doubts.

由於赴天竺路途,要經過崇山峻嶺、崎嶇不平的山道,所以玄奘法師在未啟程之前,先練習爬山越嶺的技術,先用桌子、凳子之類物品,堆成假山,從這邊爬到那邊,再從那邊爬到這邊。這樣一天練習多次,後來自己感覺爬山的技術不錯,又到山上去實地練習,約有一年經驗,技術方臻熟練。

 

After receiving full ordination at age twenty, Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang travelled about, learning from Good and Wise Advisors. He discovered that the teachings of the various masters differed in large measure from the Sutra texts in the Canon, and as a result, no one knew where to turn. This was especially the case with the Shastra on the Seventeen Stages, which produced many different opinions. Master Hsuan Tsang thus made a vow to go to India to investigate the Dharma, in order to resolve his doubts.

   

於是上表,申請到天竺取經。當時(唐朝)的法令,禁止人民出境,所以未獲唐太宗批准。但是玄奘法師已拿定主意,無論批准與否,他決定赴天竺一行,所以最後不得不私自出境。

 

At this point, he applied for permission to travel to India to obtain the Sutras. As the laws of the Tang Dynasty forbade civilian travel across the border, the Tang Emperor Taizong (Li Shimin) refused his request. However, Master Hsuan Tsang was resolute. With or without permission, he was determined to make the trip to India. Finally he was forced to secretly cross the border.

   

從長安出發,隻身向西行,經過一個山洞,見洞口有蝙蝠糞,當時玄奘法師想:「這洞中一定無人住,否則不會有這麼多的蝙蝠糞。」好奇的心理使他向洞中走去,在不遠的地方,他發現一個怪物,頭髮都結在一起,小鳥在上面做窩,窩中小鳥吱吱哇哇在叫,這怪物臉上的塵土很厚,好像石頭人一般。玄奘法師走近仔細一看,原來是位老修行,已經入定。玄奘法師用引磬給他開靜,令他出定,一會兒,這位老修行開始動彈。

 

While heading west alone from the capital, Changan, Master Hsuan Tsang passed by a mountain cave with piles of bat-droppings by the entrance. It occurred to him that nobody lived in the cave, or else the bat-dung could not have piled up outside the cave entrance. Full of curiosity, he ventured into the cave to explore, and not far from the entrance, he discovered a monster. Its hair had been woven together atop its head, and birds had made a nest there. The baby birds were chirping and squeaking from the next. A thick layer of dirt on the creature's face gave it the look of a stone statue. Master Hsuan Tsang drew nearer for a closer look, only to discover that it was an old cultivator who had long since entered samadhi. Ringing a handbell, he brought the old cultivator out of samadhi. A moment passed, then the old cultivator began to stir a bit.

玄奘法師便問他:「老同參!你坐在這堸竣偵繵琚H」

 

The Great Master said, "Fellow cultivator! What are you doing, sitting here like this?"

   

老修行的嘴巴,動了幾次,才發出聲音來:「我等紅陽佛(釋迦牟尼佛)出世,我好幫他弘揚佛法。」

 

The old cultivator had to wiggle his jaw a few times before he could make any sound. He answered, "I'm waiting here for the Red Yang Buddha (Shakyamuni Buddha) to come into the world, so I can help him propagate the Buddhadharma."

   

玄奘法師說:「老同參!釋迦牟尼佛已經入涅槃了。」

 

Master Hsuan Tsang replied, "Fellow cultivator! Shakyamuni Buddha has already entered Nirvana!"

   

老修行一聽,很驚訝地問:「釋迦牟尼佛在什麼時候出世?」

 

The old cultivator was amazed by this news, and asked, "When did Shakyamuni Buddha appear in the world?"

   

玄奘法師說:「在一千多年前,出現於世。佛滅度已經很久了!」

 

Master Hsuan Tsang replied, "He was born over a thousand years ago, and he has already entered Nirvana for quite a long time."

   

老修行又說:「釋迦牟尼佛入涅槃,那麼我還是入定,等白陽佛(彌勒佛)出世,我再幫他弘揚佛法吧!」

 

The old cultivator said, "In that case, I'll go back into samadhi, and wait for the White Yang Buddha (Maitreya Buddha) to appear in the world, and then help him to propagate the Buddhadharma."

   

玄奘大師說:「老同參!你不要再入定了,等彌勒佛出世時,你又要錯過機會,不如現在跟我到震旦,將來我取經回來,你好幫我弘揚佛法。」

 

"Fellow cultivator! There's no need for you to go back into samadhi and wait for Maitreya Buddha to appear in the world," said the Master. "You'll surely miss him, too. It'd be better for you to go with me to China, and when I return from my pilgrimage for Sutras, you'll be able help me propagate the Buddhadharma."

   

老修行一想,言之有理,於是答應大師的要求。

 

The old cultivator thought it over and decided that Master Hsuan Tsang's suggestion was quite reasonable, so he agreed to it.

   

玄奘法師對他說:「你的身體太舊了,你要換一個新的房子。你到長安去,看到黃色琉璃瓦的屋子,你就到那堨h投胎,等我從天竺(印度)取經回來,我再來找你。」於是老修行辭別玄奘法師,二人便分手,一向東走,一向西行,各自奔前程。

 

Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang told him, "Your body is too old and decrepit; you should change it for a new one. Why don't you go to Changan, to the house with yellow roof-tiles, and be reborn there. When I return from my trip to India to obtain Sutras, I'll go to find you." The two of them said goodbye, one heading east and one going west, each of them on his mission.

   

玄奘法師經過跋山涉水,迭遭災難而不灰心。曾經誓言:

寧向西天一步死,
不願東土一步生。

 

Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang scaled peaks and forded rivers, encountering numerous calamities and trials without losing his nerve. At one point he made a vow, saying,

I would rather die while making one last step towards the West,
than live by retreating one step towards the East.

   

這種為法忘軀的精神,實在偉大!所以他能完成偉大的事業,對中國佛教有所貢獻,並且創立了「唯識宗」。所謂「見賢思齊」,我們希望成就道業,應該以玄奘法師為寶鑑,做為模範,向他看齊,把本有的智慧現出來,為佛教貢獻一分力量。

 

His selfless courage in quest of the Dharma was truly noble. As a result of his momentous work, he made a magnificent contribution to Chinese Buddhism, and he established the Consciousness Only (Weishi) School. A maxim tells us to "Imitate worthy models." In our hope to accomplish our work of cultivation, we can take Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang as our worthy model and guide. We can measure ourselves by his example, uncover our inherent wisdom, and give our share of strength to Buddhism as he did.

   

一日復一日,玄奘法師餐風宿露,披星戴月,向西前進。他抱著堅忍不拔的意志,不到目的地(天竺),決不休息。所謂「有志者事竟成」,經過千辛萬苦,在路上行走三年,終於到達天竺的佛教大學(那爛陀寺),拜戒賢論師為師(當時天竺唯識學權威),專學《十七地論》及《瑜珈論》等經典。學成歸國,路經曲女城,為戒日王所請,在該城成立辯論大會,參加者有十八國的國王,以及大乘、小乘、婆羅門和外道等,約有六千人,盛況空前。大師為論主,稱揚大乘,序作論義,懸於會場門外,並言:「如改一字,願拜他為師。」經過十八天,無人能改,最後勝利,名揚五天竺,無人不知,無人不曉這位大名鼎鼎的玄奘法師。

 

From one day to the next, Master Hsuan Tsang endured the hardships of travel, eating and sleeping outdoors. He was constantly exposed to the elements on his journey to the West. His resolve was unshakable: until he reached his goal--India--he would never rest. As the motto goes: "Perseverance brings success." He underwent a myriad bitter hardships; and his pilgrimage took over three years, bringing him finally to India's Buddhist University, Nalanda Monastery, where he became a disciple of India's authority in Consciousness Only, Shastra Master Shilabhadra (Moral and Worthy). He specialized in the study of the two treatises, the Shastra on the Seventeen Stages and the Yogacharyabhumi Shastra, and other Sutras. After he finished his studies, on his way back to China, he passed through the city of Kanyakudja. At the invitation of King Shiladitya, he organized a great debate, the participants of which numbered over six thousand people. Among them were the kings of eighteen countries, monks of both Great and Small Vehicles, Brahmans, and externalists, all coming together in an unprecedented gathering. As the host of the debate, the Great Master praised and propagated the Great Vehicle, posting his treatise out by the main entrance. He challenged all comers, claiming that if anyone could improve his treatise by even a single word, he would bow to that person and become his disciple. Eighteen days passed, and no one could change even one word of the text. He won the great debate, and his name spread throughout India's five kingdoms. There was not a person who did not hear of his accomplishment. Such was the peerless reputation of the Great Master Hsuan Tsang.

   

貞觀十九年(西元六四五年)正月二十四日,玄奘法師回到長安,當時僧俗出迎者有數十萬人。唐太宗派相國梁國公、房玄齡等為代表,歡迎玄奘法師。後於弘福寺,從事翻譯經典工作。

 

In the nineteenth year of the Zhenguan reign period (a.d. 645) of the Tang Dynasty, on the twenty-fourth day of the first lunar month, he returned to Changan, and was welcomed by several hundreds of thousands of Sangha members and citizens. Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty sent high-ranking cabinet ministers Liang Guogong, Fang Xuanling, and others as representatives to welcome Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang. Later, he was taken to Hongfu (Vast Blessings) Monastery, where he began translating the Sutras.

   

玄奘法師在天竺留學十二年(在路上往返耽誤五年),成為中國留學生的祖師。他取回的經典有五百二十篋,計有六百多部。他將全部經典貢獻給國家,特蒙皇帝召見,嘉獎一番。

 

Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang's pilgrimage to study in India took over twelve years, five of which were spent in the journey back and forth. He became the "patriarch" of all overseas students from China. The Sutra texts he brought back numbered five hundred and twenty cases and comprised over six hundred works. He offered all the Sutras as a gift to the nation. The Emperor summoned him for an special audience and conferred praise and favor upon him.

   

玄奘法師見到唐太宗便向皇帝賀喜:「恭喜陛下。」

 

Master Hsuan Tsang said to Emperor Taizong, "Congratulations, your Majesty!"

   

唐太宗覺得莫明其妙,就問:「喜從何來?」

 

The comment struck the Emperor as quite unusual "What am I being congratulated for?" he asked.

   

玄奘法師說:「陛下得一位太子。」

 

"A son has been born to Your Highness."

   

唐太宗有丈二金剛摸不著頭腦的感覺,便說:「 沒有啊!」

 

The Emperor's face bore an expression of utter bewilderment. "No, that's not so!" he said.

   

玄奘法師心想:「明明指示老修行來投胎,怎會沒有呢?」於是在定中觀察。哎呀!老修行搞不清楚,投錯胎了,跑到尉遲恭家堨h了。玄奘法師將這段因緣,向唐太宗報告。

 

Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang thought, "I told that old cultivator clearly to come be reborn here; how could he have gone wrong?" He promptly entered samadhi and perceived that the old cultivator had entered the wrong house and been reborn to the wrong family. He had accidentally been born to the family of Wei Chigong, the War Minister. Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang then reported this turn of events in full to the Emperor.

   

唐太宗說:「原來如此,那你就去度他吧!」

 

"Oh, in that case," said Emperor Taizong, "Just go and save him."

   

玄奘法師便去找尉遲恭,說明來意。他一見尉遲恭的姪子,心生歡喜,因為窺基的身體,非常魁偉,相貌堂堂,一表人才,是載法之器。於是他開門見山便說:「你跟我出家吧!」窺基一聽,莫名其妙,不悅地說:「你說什麼?叫我出家,豈有此理!」轉身就走了。

 

Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang called on General Wei Chigong and explained the reason for his visit. When the Master saw Wei Chigong's nephew, he was delighted, because the young man's physique was quite imposing, and his countenance was dignified. He looked thoroughly talented, fit to be a vessel of the Dharma. Master Hsuan Tsang came right to the point and said, "Come and leave the home-life with me!" The nephew was astounded, and answered unhappily, "What did you say? Leave home? Impossible!" And he turned and left.

   

玄奘法師只好與唐太宗商量,成就這段因緣。於是乎皇帝下旨,要尉遲恭的姪子出家,尉遲恭一接到聖旨,便叫姪子出家。窺基嚴辭拒絕,說:「豈有此理!皇帝怎麼可以叫我出家?我還沒玩夠哪!我要去和皇帝講道理。」第二天尉遲恭帶著姪子來見皇帝。

 

Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang had no alternative but to request Emperor Taizong to lend a hand in order to bring this event to a successful conclusion. Thereupon, the Emperor ordered Minister Wei Chigong's nephew to leave the home-life. When the Minister received this imperial order, he told his nephew to leave home. But his nephew defiantly refused, saying, "Ridiculous! How can the Emperor tell me to leave the home-life? I haven't played around enough yet. I'm going to have a talk with the Emperor." The next day, Wei Chigong took his nephew to see the Emperor.

   

窺基一來便說:「陛下要我出家,可以!可是我有三個條件。」

 

As soon as they arrived, the nephew said, "If the Emperor wants me to leave the home-life, I'll do it, but I have three conditions."

   

唐太宗一聽就說:「你要多少個條件都可以。」

 

The Emperor replied, "You can set as many conditions as you want."

   

窺基就說了:「我最歡喜喝酒,我不能沒有酒,無論我到什麼地方,都要有一車的酒跟著。」

 

The nephew said, "I love to drink wine, and I can't live without it. Wherever I go, I must bring along a cart of wine."

   

唐太宗心想:「出家人是戒酒,可是玄奘法師告訴我,不管什麼條件都答應。」於是就說了:「好!我答應你。第二個條件呢?」

 

Emperor Taizhong thought, "Monks are supposed to abstain from wine, but Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang told me to agree to any condition he set." So he said, "Fine. I grant your request. What is your second condition?"

   

窺基說:「我知道出家人不可以吃肉,可是我歡喜吃肉,無論我到什麼地方,後面都要有一車新鮮的肉跟著。」

 

The nephew said, "I know that monks are not allowed to eat meat, but I like to eat meat, and I must have a cart of fresh meat to follow me wherever I go."

   

唐太宗說:「我答應你。第三個條件呢?」

 

The Emperor said, "I will grant you this. What is your third condition?"

   

窺基沒想到皇帝會答應他的條件,於是他接著又說:「出家人是不可以有太太的,可是我離不開女人,無論我到什麼地方,必須有一車的女人跟著。」他心想:「這個條件,皇帝無論如何一定不會答應的。」

 

The nephew hadn't expected the Emperor to agree to his demands. He continued, "Monks cannot have wives. However, I cannot renounce women. Wherever I go, there must be a cart of beautiful women to accompany me." He thought to himself, "The Emperor will never agree to this."

   

唐太宗心想:「哎呀!這怎麼能答應呢?可是玄奘法師已經囑咐我,不管什麼條件一定都要答應。」所以就說了:「好!我完全答應你,你現在可以出家了吧!」

 

Emperor Taizhong thought, "Alas! How can I promise him this? Yet Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang instructed me to grant all his requests." Therefore he said, "Fine! I agree to everything! Now you can leave the home-life!"

   

窺基沒辦法,就很勉強出家了。所以出家那天,後面有一車的酒、一車新鮮的肉、一車美女,陪著他一起到大興善寺出家(編按:大興善寺是玄奘法師的譯經場)。廟堛器D窺基要來出家,所以敲鐘擊鼓來迎接他,窺基一聽到鐘鼓的聲音,豁然大悟:「啊!原來我就是那個老修行,來幫助玄奘法師弘揚佛法。」於是乎把後面的三車遣回去,什麼都不要了。所以後人稱窺基為三車祖師。

 

The nephew had no choice but to leave home. On the day that he went to Daxingshan Monastery to leave home[Note: This is where Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang translated the Sutras], he was followed by a cart of wine, a cart of fresh meat, and a cart of beautiful women. When the people in the monastery were told that the War Minister's nephew was going there to leave the home-life, they rang the bells and beat the drums. Hearing the sound of the bells and drums, Master Kueiji [the nephew's left-home name] suddenly had a great awakening: "Oh! So I was an old cultivator and now I've come to help Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang propagate the Buddhadharma." Thereupon he ordered the three carts to turn around and go back. He no longer wanted any of those things. Later generations dubbed him "The Three Cart Patriarch."

   

玄奘法師取回的《唯識三十頌論》有十家,玄奘法師皆譯為華文,按照論中的意思,一字不減,一字不添,照原意譯出。此時窺基擔任整理論文,玄奘法師將十家之論譯完之後,窺基要求玄奘法師:「這十家的論,各有其長,各有其異,若不統一,令今後學者,有歧路亡羊之苦惱,不如去其糟粕,留其精華,合成一本,令今後研究唯識的人,獲得同一的結論,不用浪費時間,而能得到法要。」玄奘法師同意他的見解是正確的,所以合成一本唯識論,即是現在的《三十頌唯識論》。玄奘法師又傳授窺基「因明學」,後來他成為唯識專家,以宣揚唯識思想為宗旨,成為當代大德,為「唯識宗」第二祖。

 

The Thirty-stanza Consciousness Only Treatise that Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang brought back with him from India contained ten divisions, which he translated in their entirety into Chinese. He faithfully followed the original intent of the treatise, and neither deleted nor added as much as a single word as he translated it. Master Kueiji was in charge of the editing job, and after all ten divisions of the treatise had been fully translated by Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang, he made a request: "These ten divisions of the text all contain their strengths and weaknesses. If they fail to agree, it will certainly bring confusion and consternation to those who investigate Consciousness Only in the present and future. It might be better if we edit out the dross and keep the essentials, making just a single volume, so that future students of Consciousness Only will be able to come to the same conclusion. In this way they will not waste time in getting to the essentials of the Dharma." Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang agreed with his suggestion and produced the present version of the Thirty-stanza ConsciousnessOnly Treatise . He later transmitted the Logic School teachings to Master Kueiji, who became an expert in Consciousness Only and made it his aim to propagate the doctrines of that school. Master Kueiji became an eminently virtuous monk of his time and was the Second Patriarch of the Consciousness Only School.

   

以宣揚唯識思想為宗旨,成為當代大德,為「唯識宗」第二祖。 玄奘法師回國第二年,奉詔撰《大唐西域記》一十二卷。唐顯慶五年(西元六六○年),玄奘法師五十九歲時,開始譯《大般若經》。《大般若經》梵本有二十萬頌,玄奘法師廣譯,不敢刪略,一如梵本,經過四年的時間,譯成六百卷。次年,擬譯《大寶積經》,不幸患病而輟筆。

 

Two years after his return to China, Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang accepted an imperial appointment to compile a twelve-roll work called the Great Tang Dynasty's Record of the Western Lands. At age 59, in the fifth year of the Tang Dynasty's Xianqing reign-period (a.d. 660), he began to translate the Great Prajna Sutra. The original Sanskrit version contained 200,000 stanzas. Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang translated them entirely, not daring to omit any part of the text. He relied faithfully on the Sanskrit version, and finished the translation of 600 rolls in four years. The following year, he planned to translate the Great Collection of Jewels Sutra, but unfortunately had to stop working because of illness.

   

唐麟德元年(西元六六四年)二月,玄奘法師圓寂,年六十有四,葬於樊川北原。玄奘法師所譯的經典有七十五部,一千三百三十五卷,成為中國四大譯經家之一。其弟子甚多,以窺基、圓測傳承唯識,普光、神泰傳承俱舍。

 

Dharma Master Hsuan Tsang entered Nirvana at age 64, in the second month of the first year of the Tang Dynasty's Lingde reign-period (a.d. 664). He was buried at Beiyuan (Northern Plain) near the Fan River. He had translated 75 Sutras, totalling 1,335 rolls, and thus qualified as one of China's four greatest translators of Sutras. His disciples were numerous, including Masters Kueiji and Yuance, who continued the transmission of the Consciousness Only School, and Masters Puguang and Shentai, who taught the Kosa Sect.

   

隋唐二朝,是佛教黃金時代,百家爭鳴,祖師輩出,各創宗派,當時有十宗,小乘有二宗,大乘有八宗。其中「三論宗」和「唯識宗」,完全保存天竺原有的思想,原封不動,搬到中國來。另外「天臺宗」(以《法華經》為宗)和「賢首宗」(以《華嚴經》為宗)的思想就加入了中國的思想,這四宗是研究佛理的,成為教門。乃至後來中國演變出五大宗派:教、禪、淨、律、密,這些宗派其實目的都是同入究竟涅槃,不過修持方法有所不同而已。

 

During the Tang and Sui dynasties, known as China's Golden Age of Buddhism, many schools flourished. Patriarchs appeared in succession, each establishing different sects. The foremost among those at the time were ten schools, two of which were Small Vehicle (Theravada), and eight of which were Great Vehicle (Mahayana). Two of these schools, the Three Treatise School and the Consciousness Only School, preserved in its original purity the teachings and traditional thought of Indian Buddhism and transplanted them intact into Chinese soil. Of the rest, the Tiantai School, which centered around the Dharma Flower Sutra, and the Xianshou (Worthy Leader) School, which centered around the Flower Adornment Sutra, incorporated elements of traditional Chinese thinking in their teachings. These four schools specifically investigated the principles of Buddhism, and together formed the Teachings School. Buddhism as a whole evolved into the present Five Schools: the Teachings School, the Chan Meditation School, the Pure Land School, the Vinaya School, and the Secret School. Although their actual purpose is to take us to ultimate Nirvana, the methods used are slightly different.

   
     

一九八○年禪七 十二月開示

 

A talk given during a Chan Session
in December, 1980

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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