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宣化上人開示錄(三)
Venerable Master Hua's Talks on Dharma Volume Three 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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參禪的境界

The State of Chan Meditation


坐禪,坐到內無身心,外無世界。
Sit in meditation until "Inside you have no body and mind, and outside there is no world."

坐禪,坐到內無身心,外無世界,遠無其物的時候,就能無我相、無人相、無眾生相、無壽者相。這就是「過去心不可得,現在心不可得,未來心不可得。」到這種境界,並不是得到真功夫,怎麼樣了不起了。你或者坐一個鐘頭,或者坐十個鐘頭,或者能坐一個月,甚至能坐十個月,這不過是功夫有點相應的現象,得到一點輕安的境界而已。經過輕安境界之後,繼續參禪,便到初禪的境界。

 

If you can sit in meditation until your state is such that "inside you have no body and mind," outside you have no world, and afar there are no objects," then you can realize the state of "no trace of self, no trace of others, no trace of living beings, and no trace of life spans." This state is also described as, "Thoughts of the past cannot be obtained, thoughts of the present cannot be obtained, and thoughts of the future cannot be obtained." Even if you reach this level of attainment, it still cannot be considered actual skill; it's not really very special. Suppose you can sit still for one hour, ten hours, one month, or ten months. That's only a sign that you have had a bit of response in your work, that you've attained a state of "lightness and ease." You must keep up your practice of meditation continuously, past the stage of "lightness and ease," to actually reach the level of the First Dhyana concentration.

初禪天名叫「離生喜樂地」,就是離開眾生所喜歡的境界。在離生喜樂地打坐時,很快入定,在定中,呼吸停止,不入不出,不來不去。好像烏龜在冬季的時節,把頭縮回殼內,外邊停止呼吸,可是內部呼吸活動起來,這是冬眠現象。參禪的人,在定中停止呼吸,出定時照常呼吸。各位注意,如果到這種境界的時候,不可以打妄想:「哦!沒有呼吸了!」這個妄念一生,馬上恢復呼吸,所以不可不慎;否則失去機會,必須再重來。

 

The Heaven of the First Dhyana is known as "the stage of happiness that leaves living beings behind." It means that you have reached a stage of happiness beyond that which living beings enjoy. When you are at this stage in your meditation, you quickly enter samadhi-concentration. In this samadhi, your breathing stops, and you no longer inhale nor exhale; the breath neither comes nor goes. You're like a turtle hibernating in the winter, with its head drawn back into its shell. The external breathing come to rest, while the internal breathing comes alive; this is a phenomenon experienced by creatures in winter hibernation. When Chan meditators enter samadhi, their breath stops, but as soon as they leave samadhi, their breathing returns to normal. Please attend to this point, everyone! When you reach this stage, you cannot have the false thought, "Oh! I believe my breath has stopped!" As soon as that thought occurs to you, your breath starts right up again, immediately. You can't be careless, or else you'll lose your chance and have to start all over again.

由初禪天精進修禪定,進入二禪天的境界。二禪天名叫「定生喜樂地」,就是常在定中生出一種快樂,這種快樂無法形容,所謂「禪悅為食,法喜充滿」的境界。在定生喜樂地坐禪時,在定中不但呼吸停止,而且脈搏也停止。要注意,停止不是斷絕,出定時,又會恢復正常。

 

From the stage of the First Dhyana, if you can make vigorous progress, you enter into the stage of the Second Dhyana Heaven. This stage is known as "the stage of happiness that brings concentration." When one is constantly in this samadhi, it brings along a quality of happiness which is completely unparalleled and indescribable. It's known as "taking the joy of Chan as your food, and being filled with the bliss of the Dharma." When you meditate at the stage of the Second Dhyana, "the stage of happiness that brings concentration," not only does your breathing stop, but your pulse stops as well. Please note that "stop" does not mean it's cut off for good,; when you leave this state of concentration, the pulse returns to normal.

   

由二禪天精進修禪定,進入三禪天的境界。三禪天名叫「離喜妙樂地」,就是離開粗的歡喜,尚有細的歡喜,得到微妙的快樂。在離喜妙樂地坐禪時,在定中不但呼吸和脈搏停止,而且心念也停止,真像死人一樣。這時念停止了,沒有一切妄想。

 

If you continue to vigorously cultivate Chan concentration past the Second Dhyana, then you may enter the stage of the Third Dhyana Heaven. This is known as "the stage of bliss beyond happiness." That is to say, you leave coarse happiness behind and reach a level of subtle bliss that is most wonderful. In this stage of bliss beyond happiness, when you enter the state of concentration, not only do both breath and pulse stop, but also the thoughts in your mind stop, and you appear to be just like a dead person. When your thoughts stop, then you obviously have no more idle thinking.

   

呼吸停止,血液沒有氧氣,停止循環,所以心臟不活動,沒有脈搏。這時,一切雜念都沒有了,譬如呼吸是風,脈搏是浪,心念是水。沒有風,就無浪,水自然平靜,所謂「風平浪靜」,就是這個道理。這種情形是在定中暫時的作用,並不是死亡的斷氣,隨時隨地都可以再恢復呼吸和脈搏的正常活動。

 

Your breathing comes to rest, and your blood receives no more oxygen, so it stops circulating. When your heart no longer beats, then your pulse stops. At this time you entertain no further scattered thoughts. It's as if the breath were the wind, the pulse were the waves, and the thoughts of the mind were the water. If there is no wind, then there are no waves, and the water is naturally calm. As the saying goes, "The wind is calm and the waves are still." This is a temporary experience which occurs in samadhi. It's not as final as death. You can recover your normal breathing and pulse any time you please.

由三禪天精進禪定,進入四禪的境界。四禪天名叫「捨念清淨地」,就是捨去三禪的妙樂,心念清淨。氣停止,脈停止,念停止,而且也捨了,這時清淨本然的妙真如性現前。有這種境界,不可以自認為了不起,這不過是四禪的境界而已,並不是證果的現象,仍然是凡夫地位,因為還沒有斷欲。如果勇猛精進,修外道邪定,則進入無想天,享受快樂的境界;修正定正受,則進入五不還天,這才是證果的境界。

 

When you continue to apply vigorous effort in Chan meditation past the Third Dhyana Heaven, you can enter the stage of the Fourth Dhyana, known as "the pure stage free of thoughts." You have now left behind the wonderful bliss of the Third Dhyana, and the mind is pure. With the breath, pulse, and thoughts stopped and left behind, the pure, inherent, wonderful Nature of True Suchness manifests. This state should not make you feel special; it is only the Fourth Dhyana and not a sign of having realized the fruition of the Way. It is still the state of an ordinary person. Because you have not cut off all desire, if you make vigorous progress in cultivating the deviant concentration of externalist sects, you will enter the Heaven of No-thought and enjoy a state of bliss. If instead you cultivate proper concentration, then you can enter the Five Heavens of No Further Return. Only then have you actually reached the state of certifying to Sagehood.

   

證初果的羅漢,不但在定中沒有妄念,就是在行住坐臥之中,也沒有妄想,沒有執著。到初果的境界,只是斷了三界八十八品見惑而已,還有七番生死;並不是證到初果,就入涅槃了。到初果時,無論見到什麼境界,也不能動搖其心,所謂「對境無心」,只有道心,專一修禪。即使外邊境界如何莊嚴,如何美好!或者是美女,或者是俊男,也不能動搖其心。這時候,不貪財、不貪色、不貪名、不貪食、也不貪睡,一切無所謂。到這種境界,才可以說是證果。證初果的羅漢,走路沒有聲音。因為腳離開地面總有三分高,為什麼?證果的聖人心懷慈悲,深恐踩死小蟲等,所以在虛空堥姜禲C

 

As an Arhat of the First Fruition, you are free of idle thoughts not only when you are in samadhi, but also when you are walking, standing, sitting, or reclining. You have no attachments left. When you attain the First Fruition, you have merely cut through eighty-eight levels of Delusions of Views in the Triple Realm. You must still pass through seven more births and deaths. Don't assume that the First Fruition brings one to Nirvana. The minds of Arhats of the First Fruition are not swayed, no matter what sight meets their eyes. They are free of all thoughts when facing situations. They have only the thought of the Way as they cultivate Chan single-mindedly. Even if very attractive states appear to them, such as a lovely woman or a handsome man, their minds will not be moved. At this level, they experience no greed for wealth, sex, fame, food, or sleep. They are indifferent to all of these desires. Only when one reaches this level of skill can he be called, "One who has realized the fruition." An Arhat of the First Fruition makes no sound with his feet as he walks. His feet are an inch or so above the earth. Why? People who have attained the fruition are possessed of kindness and compassion. They are extremely concerned about not harming small insects as they walk, so they prefer to travel in the air.

   

各位注意!不可以未證言證,未得謂得,這是犯了妄語戒,將來要墮到拔舌地獄的。我已事先說明了,信不信由你。在佛教中有人沒有開悟,就說自己開悟,這種行為真要不得。就是真地開悟,也不要對人講:「我開悟了!得五眼六通了!」不要自我宣傳,自賣招牌,那就沒有意思了。

 

Pay special attention to this point, everyone! Don't say that you've realized what you haven't realized, or that you've obtained a state you haven't actually obtained. To say such things breaks the precept against false speech. In the future, people who say such things will fall into the hells where tongues are ripped out. Whether or not you believe my words is up to you. I'm simply giving you advance warning. In Buddhist circles you can find people who claim to be already enlightened. To make this claim is wrong! Even if you're enlightened, you can't boast, "Did you know that I'm enlightened? I have the Five Spiritual Eyes and the Six Psychic Powers!" Don't advertise yourself. It's totally meaningless.

   

就算是佛菩薩,也不會自我宣傳的,如果有人知道某某人是菩薩、某某人是佛化身來到世間,那時候,他們就走了。在唐朝有兩位大師,一位是寒山大師,一位是拾得大師。寒山是文殊師利菩薩的化身,拾得是普賢菩薩的化身。原來寒山和拾得是最好的道友。拾得(是豐干和尚在路旁拾來的嬰兒,在國清寺養育成人)他在廚房管理燒水的工作,每天將殘餘的飯菜裝在竹筒內,供養寒山。寒山住在天臺山月光岩洞中,每天到國清寺來取殘餘的飯菜。因為兩人志同道合,常在一起說笑,全寺僧人都認為他們兩個人是瘋子,所以也不理他們。誰也不知道他們兩個人是菩薩化身,遊戲人間,來度應度的眾生。

 

Even Buddhas and Bodhisattvas do not advertise themselves. When it becomes known that a certain person is a Bodhisattva, or that a certain person is a Buddha who has come into the world by transformation, those people will promptly leave. During the Tang Dynasty there were two such Great Masters: Hanshan (Cold Mountain) and Shide (The Foundling). Great Master Hanshan was Manjushri Bodhisattva's transformation, and Shide was Samantabhadra Bodhisattva's transformation. The two were the best of friends. Great Master Shide was an orphan, found on the roadside by the Abbot Fenggan of Guoqing (National Purity) Monastery and raised in the monastery. He worked in the kitchen boiling the water. He would pack leftover rice and vegetables into a bamboo crock and save them for Great Master Hanshan, who lived in Moonlight Cave behind the monastery. Great Master Hanshan came down to Guoqing Monastery every day to get the offering of leftovers. Since the two fellow-cultivators constantly joked and laughed together, the other monks thought they were fools and left them alone. Nobody knew they were actually Bodhisattvas' transformations who had come into the world playfully to take across living beings who were ready to be saved.

   

有一天,閭丘胤太守見到豐干和尚(彌陀化身)便問:「禪師,過去諸佛菩薩常常化身來到世界,現在諸佛菩薩是不是也化身到這世界來呢?」豐干和尚說:「有啊!不過你不認識而已。現在在天臺山國清寺廚房燒水那個和尚,就是普賢菩薩,他有位道友寒山,就是文殊師利菩薩,怎麼會沒有呢?」閭太守聞之大喜,拜別而去,急往國清寺,專誠拜訪寒山、拾得兩位菩薩。

 

One day the Magistrate Lu Qiuyin visited Abbot Fenggan (who was the transformation of Amitabha Buddha) and asked, "Venerable Sir, in the past, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas often sent their transformations into the world. Do they still come to the world or not?" Abbot Fenggan said, "Yes, they do! It's only that we don't recognize them. Right now, the monk who boils water in the kitchen at Guoqing Monastery on Tiantai (Heavenly Vista) Mountain is the transformation of Samantabhadra Bodhisattva. His fellow cultivator is Hanshan, who in reality is Manjushri Bodhisattva. Who claims that they no longer appear in the world?" Lu Qiuyin was delighted by this news, and took his leave. He headed directly for Guoqing Monastery, intending to pay sincere homage to the two Bodhisattvas, Hanshan and Shide.

   

來到國清寺,知客僧見太守光臨,便殷勤招待一番。聽到太守想見寒山、拾得,知客僧覺得很奇怪,不知為什麼太守要見兩個瘋人?雖然覺得莫名其妙,他還是引導太守來到廚房。此時寒山、拾得二人正大說大笑,一幅瘋瘋癲癲的樣子,令人好笑。可是閭太守卻恭恭敬敬地給二人頂禮,必恭必敬地說:「弟子閭丘胤請兩位大菩薩慈悲,指示迷津。」

 

When he arrived at Guoqing Monastery, the guest prefect recognized him as an honored guest and received him with all due courtesy. When he heard that the Magistrate wished to see Hanshan and Shide, the prefect thought it quite strange. He couldn't understand why the Magistrate was interested in meeting those two fools. Although he was puzzled, he led the Magistrate into the kitchen, where Hanshan and Shide were talking and laughing hysterically, looking truly comical. The Magistrate Lu Qiuyin, nonetheless, made very sincere bows to the two of them, and then stated with utmost reverence, "Disciple Lu Qiuyin asks the two Bodhisattvas for their compassionate regard; please give instructions to this confused mortal."

   

拾得大師說:「你在做什麼?」太守說:「我聽豐干和尚對我說,兩位是文殊和普賢二大菩薩的化身。所以特來參拜,懇乞開示。」拾得一聽,向後倒退而說:「豐干饒舌!豐干饒舌!豐干是彌陀化身,你不去拜彌陀,來麻煩我們做什麼?」說完便退到寺門之外,到天臺山月光岩,退隱石壁中。

 

Great Master Shide asked him, "What are you doing?" The Magistrate replied, "Abbot Fenggan said that you two are the transformations of Manjushri and Samantabhadra Bodhisattvas. I came out especially to bow to you and to earnestly seek your instructions." Great Master Shide heard this reply and stepped backwards. He said, "Fenggan has been prattling. Fenggan is a tattletale! He's the transformation of Amitabha Buddha! Why didn't you bow to him instead of coming to bother us?" As he spoke, he continued to walk backwards out the door of the temple and all the way to the front of Moonlight Cave in the face of Tiantai Mountain. The two men vanished right into the rock wall of the mountain.

   

太守一看,大失所望,二位菩薩隱藏起來了,所以心中就想:「回去拜彌陀吧!」等他回來時,豐干和尚已經圓寂了。這是當面錯過,所謂「對面不識觀世音。」我們禪堂中也有觀世音菩薩,可是我不能告訴你們,免得被你們給攆跑了。

 

The Magistrate watched in amazement as the two Bodhisattvas hid themselves, and he felt deep disappointment. He thought, "I must quickly go bow to Amitabha!" But by the time he returned to the Abbot's place, Abbot Fenggan had already entered the stillness of Nirvana. The Magistrate had mistaken what was before his very eyes. This is known as "Being face to face with Guanshiyin, yet failing to recognize him." Guanshiyin Bodhisattva is also here in the Chan Hall with us now, but I don't want to tell you who he is, for fear that once you know, you'll drive him away.

   
     

一九八○年禪七 十二月開示

 

A talk given during a Chan session
in December, 1980

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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