法界佛教總會•DRBA Logo

宣化上人開示錄(十)
Venerable Master Hua’s Talks on Dharma Volume Ten 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

上一頁目錄

改變舊習氣,選擇新宗旨。

Change Old Habits and Adopt New Principles


只要躬行實踐「諸惡莫作,眾善奉行」,自然達到做人的目標。
By simply applying the principle of “doing no evil and doing all good,”
we will naturally achieve our goals as human beings.

今天是甲子年最後的一天,明天就是乙丑年的開始。我們在這個時候,要改變舊的習氣。過去所行所作,因為有不良習氣的緣故,以致有很多地方不合法。從明天起,要選擇新宗旨,重新做人。如果總是不肯「覺今是而昨非」,修行就不會有進步,只是混光陰而已。

 

Today is the last day of the year jia zi [Chinese lunar calendar]. Tomorrow will be the beginning of the year yi chou. At this time, we should change our old habits. The things we did in the past were not completely proper because of our bad habits. Starting from tomorrow, we should adopt new principles and become new people. If we never “realize that now we are right and in the past we were wrong,” we will not make any progress in our cultivation and will only be wasting time.

各位!不要掩護自己的短處,要發揮自己的長處。所謂「見賢思齊」,我們要向曾子看齊,學習他的作風。在《論語》上有這樣的記載:

 

Everyone! Don’t cover up your shortcomings, but rather develop your strengths. It is said, “When you meet worthy people, strive to be like them.” We should emulate Zeng Zi and learn his good habits. It is recorded in the Analects:

曾子曰:「吾日三省吾身:為人謀而不忠乎?與朋友交而不信乎?傳不習乎?」

Zeng Zi said, “I daily examine myself in three ways. Have I been loyal to people? Have I been faithful to my friends? Have I reviewed that which has been taught to me?”

 

曾子說:「我每天有三件事,必須自我檢討:所做的事,是否忠實盡了自己的能力呢?和朋友相交,是否有不誠信的地方?每天所學習的功課,是否有溫習研究?」這一番話,我們可以做為借鏡。

 

Zeng Zi’s meaning was, “There are three points upon which I must examine myself every day: Have I done my best to carry out the jobs I’m supposed to do? Have I been trustworthy with my friends? Have I reviewed and studied the lessons I have learned every day?” We should also reflect upon ourselves in this way.

在《三字經》上開宗明義地說:「人之初,性本善。性相近,習相遠。苟不教,性乃遷。」剛出生的小孩子,本性都是善良的。因為本性和善相近,所以說「性相近」。漸漸長大,被環境所薰陶,被習氣所染污,所謂「染於蒼則蒼,染於黃則黃。」於是性情就漸漸和善相離遠了,所以說「習相遠」。在這個時期,如果不能好好地教育,把舊的習氣改變,回復到善性上,那麼他的性情就要變遷了。

The Three Character Classic begins with the words, “In the beginning of people’s lives, their natures are originally wholesome. Their natures are close to wholesomeness, but their habits carry them far away. If they are not taught well, their natures change.” Newborn babies have inherently wholesome natures. Their inherent natures are close to wholesomeness. As they gradually grow up, they are influenced by their environment and their natures become defiled by habits. There’s a saying, “Dyed blue, it becomes blue. Dyed yellow, it becomes yellow.” Thus, their natures gradually get farther and farther away from wholesomeness. So, the line says, “but their habits carry them far away.” During this period, if people are not taught well so that they can change their old habits and return to wholesomeness, then their natures will change.

年輕的時候,有父母師長來教化,來改善自己的習氣毛病,到了成年的時候,就再沒有人來教導你。你若想往好的地方改善,必須自己去改善自己。因為這個緣故,所以今天的題目是──「改變舊的習氣,選擇新的宗旨。」

When we were young, our parents and teachers taught us and corrected our bad habits and faults. When we grow up, there is no one to teach us. If we want to change for the better, we must do it by ourselves. For this reason, today’s topic is “Change old habits and adopt new principles.”

我們要認清目標,要怎樣做人?怎樣才能做一個真正的佛教徒?新的方針是什麼?新的宗旨是什麼?這些問題都要弄清楚。否則的話,無法改變舊習氣,無法選擇新宗旨,各位!要注意這一點。

We should clearly know our goals. What kind of a person do we want to be? How can we be a true Buddhist? What is our new course of action? What are our new principles? We need to be very clear about these questions. Otherwise, we will not be able to change our old habits and select new principles. Everyone should pay attention to this.

總而言之,這些問題很簡單,就是躬行實踐「諸惡莫作,眾善奉行」,就可以了。人人本著這個方針去做,自然達到做人的目標。

In any case, these are simple questions. All we have to do is apply the principle of “doing no evil and doing all good.” If everyone follows this course of action, we will naturally achieve our goals as human beings.

新的方針,就是把嫉妒、障礙、貢高、我慢等習氣完全消滅,不令它發生作用。如何消滅這四種不正當的心理?就是用慈悲喜捨四無量心來調治。有慈心就沒有嫉妒心;有悲心就沒有障礙心;有喜心就沒有貢高心;有捨心就沒有我慢心。各位研究一下,有沒有道理?

Our new course of action is to completely extinguish jealousy, obstructiveness, arrogance, and conceit, so that they cease to function. How do we extinguish these four improper states of mind? We can cure them by using the Four Unlimited Aspects of Mind: kindness, , joy, and giving. One who has a kind heart will not be jealous; one who has a ate mind will not be obstructive; one who has a joyful mind will not be arrogant; and one who has an attitude of giving will not be conceited. Look into this and see if it makes sense to you.

新的宗旨,就是不爭、不貪、不求、不自私、不自利、不妄語。其實這是萬佛聖城舊的宗旨,你們雖然聽了很多次,但是沒有認真去實行。凡是沒有實行過,就是新的;實行之後,那就不是新的。今天舊調重彈,再談談這六大宗旨的義理,希望各位注意!

Our new principles are not to contend, not to be greedy, not to seek, not to be selfish, not to pursue personal advantage, and not to lie. Actually, these are the old principles of the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. You have heard them many times before, but you have not seriously practiced them. Whatever you have not practiced is new. Once you have put something into practice, it is no longer new. Today, I’m going to play the same old tune and explain the meaning of these Six Guidelines. I hope you will all pay attention!

我們為什麼有煩惱?為什麼有憂慮?都因為有爭、貪、求、自私、自利、妄語在作怪,支配得你身心不自在。若能將它們降伏,便不會顛顛倒倒,就得到無煩無惱、無憂無慮的境界,無論在何時,都是達觀自在。我們為什麼不達觀?為什麼不自在?一言以蔽之,就是被這六種境界所轉。

Why do we get upset and worried? It’s all because of contention, greed, seeking, the pursuit of personal advantage, and lying. These states control us so that we have no peace in body or mind. If we could subdue them, we wouldn’t be so muddled. We’d have no afflictions or worries, and at all times we’d be carefree and at ease. Why aren’t we carefree and at ease? To put it simply, it’s because we’re influenced by these six states.

我在小的時候,歡喜和人爭,好抱不平、如有不平之事,除非我不知道,若被我知道了,一定挺身而出,評論是非。我也貪,貪什麼?貪吃(小孩子皆犯這種毛病)。有好吃的東西,沒有我的份,一定去爭,非得到手不可。

When I was little, I liked to argue with people and defend those who were bullied. As soon as I heard of some injustice done, I would go forth and settle the case. I was also greedy. For what? For food (most children have this problem). If there was some good food and I didn’t get my share, I’d certainly fight until I got it.

到十二歲的時候,我反省自己的個性,為什麼這樣倔強?研究明白之後,就改過自新,開始在家媯馱鬙壎n頭,表示懺悔。過去有許多事情,曾令父母操心,從今以後,再也不爭、不貪、不求、不自私、不自利。覺得很實用,一直用到今天,終身信守不渝。後來,除了給雙親叩頭之外,又給天、地、君、親、師叩頭,又給天下大聖人、大賢人、大善人、大孝人叩頭,又給大惡人叩頭。為什麼?令他們也改惡向善。這樣每天風雨無阻在庭院堨n八百多個頭,需要兩個小時。

When I was twelve, I started to reflect upon my own character to see why I was so stubborn. After I figured it out, I changed my faults and started to bow to my parents at home to show my repentance. I had given my parents much cause for worry in the past. From that day on, I have never again engaged in contention, greed, seeking, selfishness, or pursuit of personal advantage. These principles have been very useful to me, and even today I continue to observe them faithfully without change.

Later on, aside from bowing to my parents, I also bowed to the heavens, the earth, the ruler of the country, my relatives, and my teacher. I further bowed to the great sages, great worthies, great virtuous ones, and great filial ones in the nation, as well as to those of notorious evil. Why did I bow to evil people? I hoped to influence them to become good. Every day, rain or shine, I spent two hours in the yard making over eight hundred bows.

上次到加拿大金佛寺時,我對三步一拜說:「你們試一試,若是不爭、不貪、不求,這有多妙!不自私、不自利,這是妙中之妙,再沒有比這更妙的法了。倘能真正躬行實踐這六大宗旨,你說還有什麼能超過這種法?」各位!努力實行這六大宗旨,對修行才會有進步。否則一切等於空談,畫餅不能充飢,煮沙不能成飯。

The last time I was at Gold Buddha Monastery in Canada, I told the monks who were doing the Three Steps One Bow pilgrimage, "You give it a try and see how marvelous it is not to contend, not to be greedy, and not to seek! Not being selfish and not pursuing personal advantage is the wonder of wonders. Nothing is more wonderful than this Dharma. If you can truly practice these Six Guidelines, do you think anything could surpass this Dharma?" You must strive to practice these Six Guidelines, for only then can you make progress in your cultivation. Otherwise, it’s all just empty words. You can’t satisfy your hunger by drawing a picture of a pancake, nor can you obtain rice by cooking sand.

萬佛聖城這六大宗旨,人人要念茲在茲不忘它,因為這個,所以我什麼都捨了,什麼都布施於人,不是盡教人布施給我。當然,有人布施,我也不拒絕。但是,我儘量布施,有機會就做一點。凡是我能做到的事情,我就做一點;做不到的事情,也不勉強去做。

Everyone should remember these Six Guidelines of the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. As a result of these principles, I have given up everything. I have given everything away to other people. I don’t ask people to make offerings to me. Of course, when people make offerings, I don’t refuse them. But I do my best to practice giving. Whenever I have a chance, I practice a little giving. If there’s something I can do, I put some effort into it. If something is beyond my ability, I don’t force myself to do it.

各位想一想!若是能這樣去做,還有什麼好憂愁的?還有什麼放不下呢?如果認真去實行這六大宗旨,那就是真正明白佛法了。換言之,佛法的真諦,已包括在這六大宗旨之內。

All of you think it over. If you could be this way, what worries could you possibly have? What would you be unable to let go of? If you can earnestly practice these Six Guidelines, you will truly understand the Buddhadharma. In other words, these Six Guidelines en the truths of the Buddhadharma.

不爭,就是不犯殺戒。為什麼要殺生?就因為要爭,你爭我奪,就發生殺人放火的行為。不爭就不殺,這樣就把殺戒守住了。

Not contending means not violating the precept against killing. Why do people kill? Because they want to fight. In fighting with one another, they end up committing murder and arson. If there is no contention, there will be no killing, and the precept against killing will be upheld.

不貪,就是不犯盜戒。為什麼要偷盜?就因為貪的緣故,貪人之物為己有,若不貪就能守持不盜戒。

Not being greedy means not violating the precept against stealing. Why do people steal? Because of greed. They are greedy to possess what belongs to other people. If you are not greedy, you will be able to uphold the precept against stealing.

不求,就是不犯婬戒。男人追女人,這是求;女人追男人,也是求。求之不得,就神魂顛倒,甚至在夢中,還在追求,身心不寧。

Not seeking means not violating the precept against sexual misconduct. Seeking involves men pursuing women, and women chasing after men. When people cannot obtain what they seek for, they become so obsessed that their pursuit continues even in their dreams and they are physically and mentally restless.

不自私,就是不犯妄語戒。為什麼要打妄語?因為要保持自身的利益,所以到處騙人說假話。如果不自私,到處可說真話,沒有欺騙的行為。

Not being selfish means not violating the precept against lying. Why do people lie? They want to protect their own benefits, so they go everywhere cheating people and lying. If you are unselfish, you will speak the truth wherever you go and won’t behave in deceitful ways.

不自利,就是不犯酒戒。飲酒的人,認為飲酒能令血液奔騰,對身體有益,一定能健康。喝酒的人喝醉的時候,覺得自己飄飄然成為神仙。這是自利在作祟。

Not pursuing personal advantage means not violating the precept against taking intoxicants. People who drink alcohol think it’s good for the body and makes them healthy because it improves their blood circulation. When drunk, they feel as if they’re floating through the air like a fairy. Their underlying motive is to seek personal benefit.

不妄語,在前邊所說五項之中已包括這項,但為提高大家的警覺,特別強調打妄語的壞處,所以又加這一項,做為警惕。

Not lying is already included in the previous five aspects. However, to increase people’s awareness and to emphasize the harm of lying, we have added it to the guidelines as a reminder.

現在加拿大溫哥華金佛寺,常常講六大宗旨,教化老年人、中年人、少年人,令他們知道佛法的重要性。如果能真正不爭、不貪、不求、不自私、不自利、不妄語,那麼社會必定安寧,家庭必定幸福。

We often lecture on the Six Guidelines at Gold Buddha Monastery in Vancouver, Canada, to teach people of all ages and make them understand the importance of the Buddhadharma. If people can truly avoid contending, being greedy, seeking, being selfish, pursuing personal advantage, and lying, the society will surely be peaceful and families will be happy.

世界上的人,若能嚴守五戒,沒有殺、盜、婬、妄、酒的行為,就沒有煩惱,沒有憂慮了。所以說這六大宗旨是最妙的法門,又可以說是「無上甚深微妙法,百千萬劫難遭遇,我今見聞得受持,願解如來真實義。」

If people of the world can rigorously observe the five precepts and avoid killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and taking intoxicants, they will have no afflictions or worries. That’s why I say the Six Guidelines are the most wonderful Dharma door. You could also say of them: “The unsurpassed, profound, and wonderful Dharma is difficult to encounter in hundreds of millions of eons. I now see, hear, and uphold it, and I vow to understand the Thus Come One’s true meaning.”

再說一句,身為佛弟子,最低限度要嚴守這五種基本大戒,徹底實行,才能安樂自在。假設這五種戒不能守,那麼比丘二百五十戒,比丘尼三百四十八戒,更不容易守。所以本師釋迦牟尼佛在雙樹林入涅槃時,便對阿難尊者說:「以戒為師!」由此可知,戒律是如何重要!

Let me add one more thing: As disciples of the Buddha, the very minimum we must do is observe these five basic major precepts and put them into thorough practice. Then we will be happy and carefree. If we cannot uphold these five precepts, it will be even harder to uphold the 250 Bhikshu precepts or the 348 Bhikshuni precepts. Therefore, before our teacher Shakyamuni Buddha entered Nirvana in the Twin (Sala) Tree Grove, he told the Venerable Ananda, “Take the precepts as your teacher.” From this, we can see how important precepts are!

     
     

一九八五年二月十九日開示

 

A talk given on February 19, 1985

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

▲Top