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宣化上人開示錄(十)
Venerable Master Hua’s Talks on Dharma Volume Ten 

化老和尚開示 Lectures by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua

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何謂仁?

What It Means to Be Humane


如果把自己不願意的事情,加在旁人身上,那就是不仁。
If you do to someone else what you wouldn’t want done to yourself, you aren’t being humane.

仁者愛人,就是仁愛的人。這個仁,在人來講,就是仁慈的表現,有推己及人的思想。所謂「己所不欲,勿施於人」,自己不願意身受之事,不要加到旁人身上。如果把自己不願意的事情,加在旁人身上,那就是不仁。

 

A humane person loves people, and is kind. People express their humaneness by being kind and considerate towards others. As it’s said, “Don’t do to others what you wouldn’t want done to yourself.” If you do to someone else what you wouldn’t want done to yourself, you aren’t being humane.

這個仁者,能吃虧、能忍辱。所謂「初而勉強,久而自然」,一開始時覺得蹩蹩扭扭的,不舒服,可是時間久了,就成為自然,絲毫不覺得勉強。

 

A humane person is able to take losses and to endure insults. This may be difficult to do at first, but gradually you get used to it. In the beginning you may feel awkward and uncomfortable, but after a while it becomes natural and isn’t the least bit forced on your part.

仁,在事來講要有忍耐心,把事情做得恰到好處。所謂:

事欲求精   須用苦功
功夫既到   觸類旁通

In practical terms, humaneness involves being patient and doing things to just the right degree. There’s a saying,

If you want to be perfect at something,
You’ve got to work hard.
When you’ve mastered the skill,
Other things also become easy.

無論做什麼事情,一定要做到精益求精,盡善盡美的地步。怎樣能做到?這就必須下一番苦功夫。什麼是苦功夫?就是一個「忍」字。忍字好像心上插了一把刀,要忍痛、要忍苦,一切都要忍。忍飢忍渴,忍風忍雨、忍寒忍暑,忍!忍!忍!忍一切不能忍的事。對於一切事,勉為其難,要下苦功,功到自然成。那時能聞一知十,開了智慧之竅門,對於事理豁然貫通,一目瞭然,無所障礙。

In everything you do, continuously seek to refine your work until you achieve the ultimate perfection and beauty. How can you do that? It takes bitter effort. What kind of bitter effort? It can all be summed up in one word: endurance. The Chinese character for ‘endurance’ (忍) is a picture of

a heart (忍) with a knife (忍) stuck in it. This means we have to endure pain, suffering, and all kinds of things-hunger, thirst, wind, rain, heat, and coldness. We’ve got to endure, endure, and endure! Endure all the things that cannot be endured. In all we do, we’ve got to bear the difficulties and apply bitter effort. Then when our skill is ripe, we’ll naturally succeed. At that point, we’ll be able to hear one thing and understand ten others. We will have opened the gate to wisdom, and all things and principles will immediately be completely clear to us-we can take in the whole picture in a single glance.

這個仁,又可當種子講,譬如種五穀,一定要選擇肥大的種籽,禾苗才會強壯,到了秋天才有豐富的收穫。這種知識,一般農人都曉得。如果不選種、不耕耘、不灌溉、不施肥,到秋天就得不到收穫。所謂「一分耕耘,一分收穫。」學生在學校讀書,也是一樣的情形。在學校用功讀書,把書的道理研究明白,當然就成為有用的人才。但讀書不求甚解,敷衍了事混光陰,畢業後,無一技之長,無謀生的能力,就成為家庭的包袱,社會的寄生蟲,受人歧視。

The analogy of seeds can also be used to explain humaneness. When planting the various grains, we must choose the large seeds, because they will produce strong sprouts and will yield a bountiful harvest in the autumn. Farmers understand this. If good seeds are not selected, and the fields are not tilled, irrigated, and fertilized, then come autumn there won’t be any harvest. “Each bit of tilling yields a bit of harvest.” This can also be applied to the situation of students studying in school. If you study hard and understand the principles in your textbooks, you will surely be able to make useful contributions in the future. On the other hand, if you are sloppy in your studies and do just enough work to get by, after you graduate you won’t have the skills to help you make a living. You’ll become a burden to your family and a parasite of society, and others will look down on you.

種子可分為有情種子及無情種子。有情的種子,能生出胎、卵、濕、化四種動物;無情的種子,能生草木植物類和金石礦物類。有情眾生,有情有性;無情眾生,無情有性。所謂「有情無情,同圓種智」,有情和無情的性是相通的,原是一個的,而無情是暫時無情,它若能返本還原,也會變為有情。但是不容易,要經過很長的時間,才能得到返本還原的機會,這機會好像三千大千世界中一粒微塵那麼小。而且它雖然轉為有情眾生,也都是低級的動物,如孑孓、蟲蟻一類的眾生而已。

There are two types of seeds: sentient seeds and insentient seeds. Sentient seeds give rise to living beings born from wombs, eggs, moisture, or by transformation. Insentient seeds produce plant life such as grass and trees, and minerals such as metals and rocks. Sentient beings possess emotions and a nature; insentient beings lack emotion but do possess a nature. It is said, “Sentient and insentient beings together perfect the Wisdom of All Modes.” The natures of sentient and insentient beings are interconnected. They were originally one. Insentient beings are that way only temporarily; if they could return to their origin, they would become sentient. However, that’s not easy to do. They have to wait a long, long time before they have a chance to return to their origin. That chance is as minute as a speck of dust in the trichiliocosm. And even when insentient beings do become sentient, they are still primitive animals such as ants, worms, or mosquitoes.

我們雖然是有情,乃是暫時的,不是永遠的。如果不好好做人,就會性化靈殘,化為無情的植物。所以在大樹中,皆有鬼神住在那堙C為什麼?因為大樹和鬼神息息相通。人和鬼也是息息相通的,沒有隔閡。修道人要明白這個道理,不要墮落到植物中;植物雖有性,但不易變有情。

Even though we are sentient beings now, this is also only a temporary state that may not last. If we don’t do a good job of being people, our natures will dissolve and transform into insentient vegetation. That’s why large trees often have ghosts and spirits living in them; it’s because there’s a close connection between large trees and ghosts and spirits. People and ghosts are connected as well; there is no real barrier between them. Cultivators had better understand this principle and avoid falling into the plant kingdom. Although plants do have a nature, it’s hard for them to become sentient beings.

同學們!人人可返本還原,可以成佛,只要早發菩提心,用功修行。但若墮落到無情中,成為植物,再想修行,就很難了,到那時就悔恨遲矣!

Fellow students! Every one of you can return to your origin and become a Buddha, as long as you bring forth the resolve for Bodhi soon and work hard at your cultivation. However, if you fall into the insentient realm and and become plants, it will be difficult for you to cultivate. You may be sorry, but by then it will be too late!

     

一九八四年三月六日開示

 

A talk given on March 6, 1984

 

法界佛教總會 • DRBA / BTTS / DRBU

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